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  • atmosphere
  • The presence of such large amounts of the halon in the atmosphere could delay the recovery of the ozone layer by several years. (newscientist.com)
  • Scientists assess ozone by calculating how much there would be if all the ozone over a particular spot on Earth were compressed to a standard atmosphere of pressure - that is, the average pressure of air at sea level . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The unit of measure used to represent the amount of ozone above a particular position on the surface is the Dobson unit (DU), with one unitrepresenting 0.01 mm of ozone compressed to one standard atmosphere. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dobson found that the ozone in the atmosphere is far from uniformly spread. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To determine how ozone and other chemicals in the atmosphere have changed from year to year, scientists have relied on data from the Aura satellite's Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). (universetoday.com)
  • The high atmosphere over the Arctic lost an unprecedented amount of its protective ozone earlier this year, so much that conditions echoed the infamous ozone hole that forms annually over the opposite side of the planet, the Antarctic, scientists say. (livescience.com)
  • Ozone can also be found in the troposphere , the lowest layer of the atmosphere. (howstuffworks.com)
  • NOx and VOCs can be transported long distances by regional weather patterns before they react to create ozone in the atmosphere, where it can persist for several weeks. (usda.gov)
  • Where it occurs in the upper atmosphere, ozone forms a shield that protects us from harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A matching hole above the Arctic was always much smaller, until March this year, when a combination of powerful wind patterns and intense cold high in the atmosphere created the right conditions for ozone-eating chlorine chemicals to damage the layer. (enn.com)
  • reactive
  • The reactions that convert less reactive chemicals into ozone-destroying ones take place within what is known as the polar vortex, an atmospheric circulation pattern created by the rotation of the Earth and cold temperatures. (livescience.com)
  • Antarctic
  • Also at the Antarctic Neumayer station , ozone sondes are launched regularly. (awi.de)
  • During this period, Antarctic temperatures are always very low, so the rate of ozone destruction depends mostly on how much chlorine there is. (universetoday.com)
  • Some degree of ozone loss above the Arctic , and the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole, are annual events during the poles' respective winters. (livescience.com)
  • Since the 1980s, scientists have recorded an ozone hole every summer above the Antarctic at the bottom of the globe. (enn.com)
  • The chemical ozone destruction over the Arctic in early 2011 was, for the first time in the observational record, comparable to that in the Antarctic ozone hole," say the scientists, led by Gloria Manney of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. (enn.com)
  • NASA
  • The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has also launched many scientific studies to investigate ozone. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This was an unsettling discovery because NASA had been monitoring ozone levels globally since 1979 with the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite. (encyclopedia.com)
  • And according to recent study by a team of NASA scientists, the ozone hole is showing signs of significant recovery as a result. (universetoday.com)
  • layer
  • [ 2 ] The ozone layer was discovered in 1913 by the French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson . (princeton.edu)
  • The photochemical mechanisms that give rise to the ozone layer were discovered by the British physicist Sidney Chapman in 1930. (princeton.edu)
  • The emission of ozone depleting substances has been damaging the ozone layer. (epa.gov)
  • But through domestic and international action, the ozone layer is healing and should fully recover by about 2065. (epa.gov)
  • At no point has any expert claimed to have substantial proof that CFCs do, in fact, threaten the ozone layer. (csmonitor.com)
  • Among other things, the NRC has urged monitoring the ozone layer through two full sunspot cycles (some 22 years) to see how ozone varies naturally with solar activity. (csmonitor.com)
  • Human activity has depleted this ozone layer and caused 'holes,' but due to a reduction in the use of certain chemicals, it is predicted that the ozone layer could recover. (broward.org)
  • The ozone layer is a integral part of what makes Earth habitable. (universetoday.com)
  • sunlight
  • Ozone is formed in the troposphere when sunlight causes complex photochemical reactions involving oxides of nitrogen (NOx), volatile organic hydrocarbons (VOC) and carbon monoxide that originate chiefly from gasoline engines and burning of other fossil fuels. (usda.gov)
  • greenhouse
  • Even though there is a connection between the two environmental issues, because ozone contributes to the greenhouse effect , the ozone hole is a separate issue. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To simulate an indoor environment, the researchers set up chambers in a greenhouse equipped with a charcoal filtration air supply system in which ozone concentrations could be measured and regulated. (innovations-report.com)
  • Arctic
  • For the first time, sufficient loss occurred to reasonably be described as an Arctic ozone hole,' write researchers in an article released Oct. 2 by the journal Nature. (livescience.com)
  • smog
  • The Environmental Protection Agency weakened one part of its new limits on smog-forming ozone after an unusual last-minute intervention by President Bush, according to documents released by the EPA. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Ozone is a major component of smog. (howstuffworks.com)
  • seasonal
  • EPA officials initially tried to set a lower seasonal limit on ozone to protect wildlife, parks and farmland, as required under the law. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Seasonal mean of ambient ozone concentrations between 09:00 and 16:00 h over the continental United States from 1 July to 31 September 2005 (Tong et al. (usda.gov)
  • destruction
  • Countries agreed to end their production of the substances ultimately responsible for destruction of the ozone in 1987 with the Montreal Protocol. (livescience.com)
  • temperatures
  • Warm temperatures and low wind speeds during the summer months make summer the ozone season! (broward.org)
  • Published in the November issue of the journal Global Change Biology, the study suggests that ozone has amplified the effects of warmer temperatures in reducing streamflow in forested watersheds in the southeastern United States. (innovations-report.com)
  • 1987
  • These efforts culminated with the signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which called for the complete phasing out of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). (universetoday.com)
  • increases
  • This modeling study indicates that current and projected increases in ozone in the 21st century will likely enhance the negative effects of warming on watersheds, aggravating drought and altering stream flow. (innovations-report.com)
  • The concern is that ozone-induced increases in plant water loss could aggravate drought impacts on forests, and reduce the water available for people and stream life dependent on water flow during the dry seasons. (innovations-report.com)
  • chlorine
  • This they did by looking for telltale signs of hydrochloric acid in the MLS data, which chlorine will form by reacting with methane (but only when all available ozone is depleted). (universetoday.com)
  • kilometers
  • Although these precursors often originate in urban areas, winds can carry NOx hundreds of kilometers, causing ozone formation to occur in less populated regions as well. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Dobson
  • Between 1928 and 1958 Dobson established a worldwide network of ozone monitoring stations which continues to operate today. (princeton.edu)
  • The " Dobson unit ", a convenient measure of the columnar density of ozone overhead, is named in his honor. (princeton.edu)