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  • progression
  • The aim of the present study was to develop a PAX6 knock out cell line as a tool for molecular studies of the roles PAX6 have in attenuating glioblastoma tumor progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The U251 N PAX6 knock out cell lines generated can be used as a tool to study the molecular functions and mechanisms of PAX6 as a tumor suppressor with regard to tumor progression and treatment of glioblastoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antiquitin function and subcellular localization are closely linked, as it functions in detoxification in the cytosol, lysine catabolism in the mitochondrion, and cell cycle progression in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • The importance of proteolytic degradation inside cells and the role of ubiquitin in proteolytic pathways was acknowledged in the award of the 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathways which are affected by pyocyanin include the electron transport chain, vesicular transport, and cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Cells react to increased oxidant levels by arresting in the cell cycle, adjusting metabolism and through induction of antioxidant proteins. (embopress.org)
  • This duality is typified by signaling cascade that (a) prevents the activation of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in resting cells and (b) results in the formation and release of leukotrienes (LTs), which requires the sequential activation and interaction of at least eight different proteins. (jci.org)
  • Proteasomes are part of a major mechanism by which cells regulate the concentration of particular proteins and degrade misfolded proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the discovery of the ubiquitin proteasome system, protein degradation in cells was thought to rely mainly on lysosomes, membrane-bound organelles with acidic and protease-filled interiors that can degrade and then recycle exogenous proteins and aged or damaged organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • An enhanced susceptibility to pyocyanin is seen in cells which have mutation in certain proteins or complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vacuolar- ATPase in yeast cells is a particularly potent target as it is the main non-mitochondrial producer of ATP but also has numerous other functions such as calcium homeostatic control, the facilitation of receptor-mediated endocytosis and the degradation of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In simple terms, the protein produced by the ATM gene recognizes that there is a break in DNA, recruits other proteins to fix the break, and stops the cell from making new DNA until the repair is complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • These gene lists proved to be partly overlapping and encompassed genes related to neurotransmission, lipid metabolism, neuronal development, insulin secretion, oxidative damage and DNA repair. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This secondary source of ROS generation is sustained due to activation of the transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathway, which is known to upregulate NOX4 expression and downregulate antioxidant genes through the activation of transcription factors and epigenetic remodeling in fibroblast cells [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • protein
  • The localization of the human Aß epitope within mature neuroectodermally differentiated embryonal carcinoma (P19) cells, stably transfected with the cDNA coding for a wild form human amyloid ß-protein precursor (AßPP 751) was investigated. (iospress.com)
  • Antiquitin may also play a protective role for DNA in cell growth, as the protein is found to be up-regulated during the G1-S phase transition, which undergoes the highest degree of oxidative stress in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • Many different kinds of cancers have been observed to contain mutations that promote AKT phosphorylation, and thus the inactivation of FOXOs, effectively preventing proper cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamate receptors are responsible for the glutamate-mediated postsynaptic excitation of neural cells, and are important for neural communication, memory formation, learning, and regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cells
  • Skeletal muscles are the organ of movement, and their growth, regeneration and maintenance are dependent in large part on a population of myogenic stem cells known as satellite cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Skeletal muscles and these resident myogenic stem cells (i.e., satellite cells) are commonly exposed to significant doses of radiation during diagnostic procedures and/or during the radiotherapeutic management of cancer. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stem Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • damage
  • We believe that one of the reasons MnTE-2-PyP is a potent radioprotector is due to its protection of multiple cell types from radiation damage. (mdpi.com)
  • Babazadeh B, Sadeghnia HR, Kapurchal ES, Parsaee H, Nasri S, Zahra TN (2012) Protective effect of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone on serum/glucose deprivation-induced DNA damage in PC12 cells. (springer.com)
  • sensitivity
  • We discovered interesting differences in the sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs (Temozolomide, Withaferin A and Sulforaphane) between the PAX6 expressing and non-expressing cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • found
  • We found that MV-infected mice were more susceptible to infection with Listeria and that this corresponded with significantly decreased numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in the spleen and substantial defects in IFN-γ production by CD4+ T cells. (jci.org)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH or LD) is an enzyme found in nearly all living cells (animals, plants, and prokaryotes). (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidant
  • Moreover, Tpo1 determines a cell cycle delay during adaptation to increased oxidant levels, and affects H 2 O 2 tolerance. (embopress.org)
  • Thus, rapidly proliferating cells, for example, cancer cells or infective bacterial cells, have to compensate increased oxidant amounts, rendering them sensitive to pro‐oxidant therapies [ 6 , 7 ]. (embopress.org)
  • liver
  • The results show that the combination of a prooxidant/antioxidant had a cytotoxic effect on HuH7 and HepG2 liver cancer cells, but not on either of two normal human epithelial cell lines or on primary hepatocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • It converts pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, to lactate when oxygen is absent or in short supply, and it performs the reverse reaction during the Cori cycle in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • The cell-cycle hypothesis of AD proposes a 2-hit hypothesis that results in neuron "immortality," and continual production of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles to cause AD. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • An epigenetic clock is a type of DNA clock based on measuring natural DNA methylation levels to estimate the biological age of a tissue, cell type or organ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organismal growth (and concomitant cell division) leads to a high ticking rate of the epigenetic clock that slows down to a constant ticking rate (linear dependence) after adulthood (age 20). (wikipedia.org)
  • radiation
  • Radiation also resulted in changes to T cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, MnTE-2-PyP treatment maintains normal fibroblast function and T cell immunity months after radiation exposure. (mdpi.com)
  • The present study was designed to elucidate the key parameters associated with X-ray radiation induced oxidative stress and the effects of STS on X-ray-induced toxicity in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • STS significantly increased the Bcl-2 and Bcl-2/Bax levels and decreased the Bax and caspase-3 levels, compared with the cells treated with radiation alone. (hindawi.com)
  • Viral
  • Viral transduction of a doxycycline inducible EGFP-PAX6 expression vector was used to re-introduce (rescue) PAX6 expression in the PAX6 knock out cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • levels
  • Generally, interactions between GSH and other molecules with higher relative electrophilicity deplete GSH levels within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In high concentrations, the organic molecule diethyl maleate fully depleted GSH levels in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • citric acid
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • In non-photosynthetic eukaryotes such as animals, insects, fungi, and protozoa, as well as the α-proteobacteria group of bacteria, the committed step for porphyrin biosynthesis is the formation of δ-aminolevulinic acid (δ-ALA, 5-ALA or dALA) by the reaction of the amino acid glycine with succinyl-CoA from the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The isoforms IDH1 and IDH2 catalyze the same reaction outside the context of the citric acid cycle and use NADP+ as a cofactor instead of NAD+. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IDH step of the citric acid cycle, due to its large negative free energy change, is one of the irreversible reactions in the citric acid cycle, and, therefore, must be carefully regulated to avoid unnecessary depletion of isocitrate (and therefore an accumulation of alpha-ketoglutarate). (wikipedia.org)
  • The reaction is stimulated by the simple mechanisms of substrate availability (isocitrate, NAD+ or NADP+, Mg2+ / Mn2+ ), product inhibition (by NADH (or NADPH outside the citric acid cycle) and alpha-ketoglutarate), and competitive feedback inhibition (by ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the citric acid cycle, isocitrate, produced from the isomerization of citrate, undergoes both oxidation and decarboxylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • The metabolic shift towards aerobic glycolysis with reprogramming of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, regardless of oxygen availability, is a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. (pitt.edu)
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, diatomic gases only bind to the reduced heme, as ferrous Fe(II) while most peroxidases cycle between Fe(III) and Fe(IV) and hemeproteins involved in mitochondrial redox, oxidation-reduction, cycle between Fe(II) and Fe(III). (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • These studies reveal diverse responses of TF to oxidative damage in promoters that can have either no effect, induce a full or partial inhibition or, in some cases, actually enhance binding depending on the particular TF-promoter system under investigation and the location of the damage within the promoter element. (springer.com)
  • inflammation
  • Serum ferritin is also a well known inflammatory marker, but it is unclear whether serum ferritin reflects or causes inflammation, or whether it is involved in an inflammatory cycle. (rsc.org)
  • 15-d-Δ12,14-PGJ2, Δ12-PGJ2, and PGJ2 share a common mono-unsaturated cyclopentenone structure as well as a set of similar biological activities including the ability to suppress inflammation responses and the growth as well as survival of cells, particularly those of cancerous or neurological origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • enzyme
  • Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) (EC 1.1.1.42) and (EC 1.1.1.41) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate, producing alpha-ketoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) and CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme activators bind to enzymes and increase their enzymatic activity, while enzyme substrates bind and are converted to products in the normal catalytic cycle of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • ASK1 will be transported to the nucleus when UV-irradiation is used to treat the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algal
  • Results showed that there are special proteins (lectins) present on the zeospheres of the fungi which recognize specific sugar moieties upon the algal cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • pigment
  • One of the best-known families of porphyrin complexes is heme, the pigment in red blood cells, a cofactor of the protein hemoglobin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of this pigment in Haematococcus Pluvialis is enhanced due to various environmental stresses which limit the growth of the cell under light conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate without being regulated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • Glycine-induced activation of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors may also result in hyper- or depolarising reactions of the prospective cells with regards to the intracellular Cl? (biomasswars.com)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • The DNA-binding activity of the ubiquitously expressed ABL1 tyrosine kinase is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function for ABL1. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine
  • In the case of mucosal candidiasis, the cells that produce cytokine IL-17 are extremely important in maintaining innate immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Rich in estradiol, a major estrogen functioning as the primary female sex hormone, it is commonly known to be effective in treating women who have problems with their menstruation such as abnormal cycle, pain, discomfort, and fatigue. (halalfoodmaster.com)
  • Mortality
  • Organisms of some taxonomic groups, including some animals, experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acts
  • In humans, via white adipocytes (fat cells), production of the hormone leptin (an adipokine) acts on the hypothalamus where reproductive hormone Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Phagocytes gobble up pathogens like foreign particles, bacteria, and dead cells so they need to be able to move freely in order to do their job. (biotoxinjourney.com)
  • More recent applications of titanium dioxide are those that exploit its photocatalytic activity, i.e. its capacity to generate, by the action of ultra-violet light, radical species able to catalyse the oxidative degradation of noxious or toxic substances such as benzene, dioxane and other organic pollutants, and also of unpleasant and infectious substances such as moulds and bacteria. (google.com)
  • replication
  • What patient types is the DNA open (cell replication is rapidly occuring)? (cram.com)
  • Replication may also be blocked and/or the cell may die. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, in rapidly dividing cells, unrepaired DNA damages that do not kill the cell by blocking replication will tend to cause replication errors and thus mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood
  • Altered DNA methylation at various CpG sites was associated with exposure to mercury, lead or BPA, providing candidates to be investigated using a larger study sample, as the results may reflect an independently associated predictor (e.g. socioeconomic status, diet, genetic variants, altered blood cell composition). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The reason for this is that Cytokines stimulate white blood cells to produce MMP9. (biotoxinjourney.com)
  • These holes allow special blood cells called phagocytes to penetrate into all parts of the body. (biotoxinjourney.com)
  • Nuclear
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • survive
  • However some C. neoformans cells may survive within the macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a population of cells, mutant cells will increase or decrease in frequency according to the effects of the mutation on the ability of the cell to survive and reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • although
  • According to recent studies, insulin-sensitiser drugs are the main type of therapy for women with irregular cycles that want to improve their fertility, although weight loss is normally the first step in overweight patients with PCOS. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • This type of negative feedback slows the production line when products begin to build up and is an important way to maintain homeostasis in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the beginning of the sexual reproduction cycle of B. trispora, the initial step is the production of carotenes from carotenoids. (wikipedia.org)