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  • pathways
  • Oxidative additions proceed via many pathways that depend on the metal center and the substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxidative additions of nonpolar substrates such as hydrogen and hydrocarbons appear to proceed via concerted pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concerted mechanism produces a cis dihydride, while the stereochemistry of the other oxidative addition pathways do not usually produce cis adducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers measured plasma FlOPs at three excitation/emission wavelengths (360/420 nm, 320/420 nm, and 400/475 nm), which each reflect products from different oxidative stress pathways. (nih.gov)
  • The formation of disulfide bonds in a protein is made possible by two related pathways: an oxidative pathway, which is responsible for the formation of the disulfides, and an isomerization pathway that shuffles incorrectly formed disulfides. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to bacteria, where the oxidative and isomerization pathways are carried out by different proteins, PDI is also responsible for the reduction and isomerization of the disulfide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through their oxidative dissolution in biological systems, AgNPs can target important biomolecules such as "DNA, peptides, and cofactors" as well as absorb into nonspecific moieties and simultaneously disrupt several metabolic pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • On the other hand, damaged antioxidative defense mechanisms, altered homeostasis of the airway surface liquid (ASL), and acute or chronic airway infections (bacterial colonization) could also contribute to enhanced oxidative stress in these diseases [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Similar antioxidative effects are observed with a spin trapping agent, phenyl- N - tert -butylnitrone (PBN) or chain breaking antioxidant vitamin E. This review describes the mechanisms involved in anticholinesterase-induced oxidative/nitrosative injury in target organs of OPs/CMs, and protection by various agents. (hindawi.com)
  • Analysis of oxidative stress mechanisms may yield new insights into the dysregulation of this biological process during disease processes. (qiagen.com)
  • Thus, oxidative stress can cause disruptions in normal mechanisms of cellular signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phagocytic process can be separated into several major stages: chemotaxis (migration of phagocytes to inflammatory sites), attachment of particles to the cell surface of phagocytes, ingestion (phagocytosis) and intracellular killing by oxygen-dependent (oxidative burst) and oxygen-independent mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic obstruc
  • In recent years, it has been conceptualized that oxidative stress markers in sputum should be employed to monitor oxidative processes in patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or cystic fibrosis (CF). In this review, the use of sputum-based oxidative markers was explored and potential clinical applications were considered. (hindawi.com)
  • free radicals
  • Oxidative Stress in Aging: From Model Systems to Human Diseases discusses the role of free radicals in aging in different animal models, as well as the relevance of free radicals on age-related diseases and pathological conditions in humans (following an introduction section of the basics and theory of free radicals). (springer.com)
  • electrons
  • When the surface of apples are exposed to the oxygen in the air, the oxidative enzymes like polyphenol oxidase and catechol oxidase oxidize the fruit (electrons are lost to the air). (wikipedia.org)
  • systemic
  • While elevated levels of putative markers in plasma indicate systemic oxidative stress that may or may not originate in the respiratory tract, assessment of markers in respiratory samples is more likely to reflect oxidative processes that occur in the lungs. (hindawi.com)
  • stimulate
  • The rationale behind bio-oxidative therapies, as they are sometimes known, is the notion that as long as the body's needs for antioxidants are met, the use of certain oxidative substances will stimulate the movement of oxygen atoms from the bloodstream to the cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the Neutrophil Oxidative Burst Test heparinized whole blood is incubated at 37 °C with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), a compound known to stimulate oxidative burst activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathological
  • Numerous pathological conditions have an oxidative stress component, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, and chronic inflammation. (qiagen.com)
  • occurs
  • Oxidative deamination is a form of deamination that generates α-keto acids and other oxidized products from amine-containing compounds, and occurs largely in the liver and kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Although oxidative additions can occur with the insertion of a metal into many different substrates, oxidative additions are most commonly seen with H-H, H-X, and C-X bonds because these substrates are most relevant to commercial applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • Oxidative/fermentation glucose test (OF glucose test) is a biological technique utilized in microbiology to determine the way a microorganism metabolizes a carbohydrate such as glucose (dextrose). (wikipedia.org)
  • lungs
  • While studies show that that beta carotene, for example, has a pro-oxidative effect in the lungs of smokers, other epidemiological research has demonstrated an inverse relationship between levels of established antioxidants such as vitamin E and C and disease states such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. (news-medical.net)
  • markers
  • While many of these products are used as markers of oxidative stress, the products derived from linoleic acid appear far more predominant than arachidonic acid products and therefore easier to identify and quantify in, for example, atheromatous plaques. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • Oxidative addition and reductive elimination are two important and related classes of reactions in organometallic chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • One-electron changes are also possible and in fact some oxidative addition reactions proceed via series of 1e changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some oxidative additions proceed analogously to the well known bimolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions in organic chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the citric acid cycle pyruvate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase catalyze oxidative decarboxylation reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • conditions
  • This information is essential in order to reveal the exact role of Cd-induced oxidative stress in the modulation of downstream responses under a diverse array of conditions. (springer.com)
  • Cells
  • Much of the oxidative deamination occurring in cells involves the amino acid glutamate, which can be oxidatively deaminated by the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), using NAD or NADP as a coenzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sample results are expressed as a normal oxidative index (NOI), which is the ratio of the fluorescence in stimulated cells to the fluorescence expressed in unstimulated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • Oxidative deamination is an important step in the catabolism of amino acids, generating a more metabolizable form of the amino acid, and also generating ammonia as a toxic byproduct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although
  • Although oxidative stress has been studied in inflammatory airway diseases for decades, its reliable assessment in clinical practice has remained elusive. (hindawi.com)
  • different
  • The current review gives an overview on Cd-induced ROS production and anti-oxidative defense in organisms under different Cd regimes. (springer.com)
  • Gathering these data, it was clear that oxidative stress related responses are affected during Cd stress, but the apparent discrepancies observed in between the different studies points towards the necessity to increase our knowledge on the spatial and temporal ROS signature under Cd stress. (springer.com)