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  • tibial
  • Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a condition caused by repeated pressure that results in damage on the posterior tibial nerve. (alabamaclinics.com)
  • b) Fluorescence immunolabeling on teased fiber preparations from P30 tibial nerves demonstrating strong reduction of LKB1 protein in the LKB1-SCKO sample as compared to LKB1 fl/fl control. (nih.gov)
  • Entrapment of the posterior tibial nerve or one of its branches gives rise to tarsal tunnel syndrome, which is the most common entrapment neuropathy in the foot and ankle area. (medscape.com)
  • Historically, tarsal tunnel syndrome was defined as entrapment of the posterior tibial nerve in the fibro-osseous tunnel behind the medial malleolus, and it was considered rare. (medscape.com)
  • Nevertheless, the term tarsal tunnel syndrome continues to be frequently used to define all entrapments of the posterior tibial nerve or its branches, starting from posterior to the medial malleolus and extending distally. (medscape.com)
  • posterior
  • [ 5 ] Peripheral sensory nerves can be used to localize a lesion in relation to the dorsal root ganglion that contains the cell body of the nerve, allowing differentiation of preganglionic disorders (eg, radiculopathies, cauda equina lesions, posterior column disease) from postganglionic disorders (eg, neuropathies, plexopathies). (medscape.com)
  • The use of intraoperative facial nerve monitors has resulted in objectively demonstrable improvement in facial nerve outcome for patients undergoing posterior fossa surgery for tumor removal. (medscape.com)
  • However, although, as stated, intraoperative facial nerve monitoring has resulted in demonstrably improved facial nerve outcomes in posterior fossa tumor surgery, objective documentation of improved results in mastoid and middle ear surgery is not yet forthcoming. (medscape.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve innervates the posterior nasal cavity to detect noxious stimuli. (medscape.com)
  • The iliohypogastric nerve traverses the psoas major, piercing the lateral border of the muscle anterior to the quadratus lumborum and posterior to the kidney to traverse the lateral abdominal wall. (medscape.com)
  • entrapment
  • An MRI may show nerve entrapment, but it has limitations. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • These studies, in conjunction with the physical examination and correlation to a set of normative values, assist the electromyographer in diagnosing a multitude of nerve disorders, including entrapment neuropathies, brachial plexopathies, and polyneuropathies. (medscape.com)
  • Injury or entrapment of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, also known as meralgia paresthetica (from the Greek words mēros ["thigh"] and algos ["pain"]), is a syndrome of paresthesia and pain in the lateral and anterolateral thigh. (medscape.com)
  • [ 6 ] interdigital neuroma, Morton metatarsalgia, or interdigital nerve compression-results from entrapment of a plantar interdigital nerve as it passes under the transverse metatarsal ligament. (medscape.com)
  • optic
  • It measures the conduction of the visual pathways from the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic radiations to the occipital cortex. (medscape.com)
  • VEPs are most useful for testing optic nerve function and less useful for assessing postchiasmatic disorders. (medscape.com)
  • spine
  • While an MRI or X-ray of the spine can provide clues about its structure, EMG and NCS tests provide data about how the muscles and nerves function . (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • An EMG/NCS is the equivalent of a test drive: It evaluates how well the nerves from the spine transmit information to and from the arms, legs, and paraspinal muscles (Fig. 1). (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Another type of NCV studies is referred to as late response (H-reflex and F-wave testing) and is usually performed on nerves more proximal to the spine. (docplayer.net)
  • ulnar
  • Joint and soft tissue structures that are common sources of pain include the epicondyles (medial and lateral), the olecranon bursa, and the radial and ulnar nerves, which course near the elbow joint. (uptodate.com)
  • proximal
  • Radiculopathy produces motor deficits but does not affect sensory nerves since the anatomic location of the damage is proximal to the dorsal root ganglion. (medscape.com)
  • cranial
  • The facial nerve-also called the 7th cranial nerve-travels through a narrow, bony canal (called the Fallopian canal) in the skull, beneath the ear, to the muscles on each side of the face. (alabamaclinics.com)
  • anatomic
  • Consequently, surgeons who operate in the anatomic areas traversed by the facial nerve (see the image below) welcome and accept any adjunctive technique that potentially reduces the incidence of facial paralysis . (medscape.com)
  • Facial nerve monitoring is not a panacea, and it does not substitute for anatomic knowledge. (medscape.com)
  • anterior
  • Although the VEP is very useful for detecting an anterior visual conduction disturbance, it is not specific with regard to etiology. (medscape.com)
  • The anterior cutaneous branch of the iliohypogastric nerve continues anteriorly between the internal oblique muscle and the transversus abdominis muscle, then pierces the internal oblique muscle and becomes cutaneous through an opening in the fascial aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle, approximately 2-3 cm cephalad to the superficial inguinal ring. (medscape.com)
  • axon
  • A nerve impulse, also called an action potential , is the signal that is transmitted along an axon that enables nerve cells to communicate and to activate many different systems in an organism. (openwetware.org)
  • evaluates
  • As a practical matter, neurophysiologic monitoring of the facial nerve continuously evaluates the electromyographic activity in the monitored facial muscles. (medscape.com)
  • threshold
  • In today's laboratory you will be using extracellular recording: In the frog and human you will be recording from a nerve , which is a bundle of neurons each with its own threshold, rather than from a single neuron. (openwetware.org)
  • Vasoconstriction and delayed nerve conduction in deep tissues raises the agony threshold. (full-design.com)
  • roots
  • Total removal of the mass is performed by isolating the tumor from the surrounding nervous structures (spinal cord and/or nerve roots) and then carefully dissecting it from afferent nerve root. (hindawi.com)
  • Bearing in mind that sensory root origin is way more common and that functional compensation by surrounding spinal roots has been demonstrated [ 14 - 16 ], most authors report that cutting nerve root does not significantly increase the risk of postoperative neurological deficits [ 17 - 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • conduct
  • as in the case of heat conduction, metals are better conductors of electricity because of their greater free-electron density, while nonmetals, such as rubber, are poor conductors and may be used as electrical insulators, or dielectrics dielectric , material that does not conduct electricity readily, i.e., an insulator (see insulation). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • longitudinal
  • Ranvier crosses - black or brown figures in the shape of a cross, marking Ranvier nodes in the longitudinal section of a nerve stained with silver nitrate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • facial
  • The importance of such monitors is borne out by the devastating complications that can result from facial nerve injury during surgery, including grotesque alteration of facial appearance, exposure of the eye to vision-threatening desiccation and infection, and impairment of competence of the oral sphincter, resulting in drooling and alterations in vocal quality. (medscape.com)
  • Individuals who have had severe facial nerve injury experience degraded self-image and loss of self-confidence and self-esteem. (medscape.com)
  • Few surgeons would remove an acoustic neuroma without a functioning facial nerve monitor. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Nonetheless, many surgeons are convinced, despite the absence of objective data, that the facial nerve monitor is helpful for otologic surgery and regularly use it for routine otologic operations. (medscape.com)
  • The facial nerve can be injured by direct mechanical disruption from a rotating burr, transection with a sharp instrument, accidental evulsion (eg, from traction), or a crushing injury. (medscape.com)
  • A rotating surgical burr can produce thermal injury without directly contacting the facial nerve. (medscape.com)
  • In 1979, Delgado became the first person to use electrophysiologic monitoring of the facial nerve. (medscape.com)