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  • Mantle Cell Lym
  • Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is rarely curable. (gabriellesangels.org)
  • Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), comprising about 6% of NHL cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The workup for Mantle cell lymphoma is similar to the workup for many indolent lymphomas and certain aggressive lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mantle cell lymphoma is a systemic disease with frequent involvement of the bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract (generally showing polyposis in the lining). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Since mantle cell lymphoma may present a lymphomatous polyposis coli and colon involvement is common, colonoscopy is now considered a routine part of the evaluation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • THE control of the transition from G2 into mitosis is highly conserved and ancient in origin, being effectively an universal process in all eukaryotic cells ( N urse 1990 ). (genetics.org)
  • Although preferentially cytosolic, SIRT2 transiently shuttles to the nucleus during the G2/M transition of the cell cycle, where it has a strong preference for histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K16Ac), thereby regulating chromosomal condensation during mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • A naturally occurring p73 mutation in a p73-p53 double-mutant lung cancer cell line encodes p73α protein with a dominant-negative function TP73 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Kaghad M, Bonnet H, Yang A, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • This results in gross chromosomal rearrangements that can lead to cell death or, when less severe, tumorigenesis via activation of oncogenes and loss of tumor suppressors. (genetics.org)
  • squamous
  • But little is known about the dysregulation of miR-195 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). (plos.org)
  • Jia L-f, Wei S-b, Gong K, Gan Y-h, Yu G-y (2013) Prognostic Implications of MicoRNA miR-195 Expression in Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma. (plos.org)
  • Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, including cancers of oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx, represents the sixth most frequent solid cancer around the world . (plos.org)
  • Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is the most common type of oral cancer and is well-known for its high rate of proliferation and nodal metastasis . (plos.org)
  • KLF4 is an anti-tumorigenic factor and its expression is often lost in various human cancer types, such as Colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, intestinal cancer, prostate cancer, bladder cancer and lung cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in some cancer types KLF4 may act as a tumor promoter where increased KLF4 expression has been reported, such as in oral squamous cell carcinoma and in primary breast ductal carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, overexpression of KLF4 in skin resulted in hyperplasia and dysplasia, which lead to the development of squamous cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar finding in esophageal epithelium was observed, where overexpression of KLF4 resulted in increased inflammation that eventually lead to the development of esophageal squamous cell cancer in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • Blastic (aka blastoid) variants have intermediate to large-sized cells with finely dispersed chromatin, and are more aggressive in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Besides regenerating muscle, the grafted cells also increased new blood vessel formation at the border zone of the infarct, apparently through increased activation of the paracrine mechanism. (uab.edu)
  • Conclusion- These findings suggest that high expression of SM22α inhibits cell proliferation via reduction of the response to mitogen stimuli in VSMCs and provide a novel mechanism by which VSMCs maintain their contractile phenotype and resist mitogenic stimuli in an SM22α-dependent manner. (ahajournals.org)
  • For the first time, we reveal the mechanism behind this response - miR-17-5p acts specifically at the G1/S-phase cell cycle boundary, by targeting more than 20 genes involved in the transition between these phases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genes
  • Inhibition of histone deacetylases reverts the resistance to overexpressed chk1 + , suggesting this phenotype is due to a HAT activity, although expression of checkpoint and cell cycle genes is not greatly affected. (genetics.org)
  • While both pro- and anti-proliferative genes are targeted by miR-17-5p, pro-proliferative mRNAs are specifically up-regulated by secondary and/or tertiary effects in HEK293T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genes Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • The protein localizes to centrioles-complex microtubule-based structures found in centrosomes-and regulates centriole duplication during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PLK4 inhibitor R1530 down regulates the expression of mitotic checkpoint kinase BubR1 that in turn leads to polyploidy rendering cancer cells unstable and more sensitive to cancer chemotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIF1 also shows distinct differences in the pathways by which it regulates endothelial cells, macrophages, and vascular smooth muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • We screened in fission yeast for mutations that rendered cells resistant to overexpressed chk1 + . (genetics.org)
  • MCL, like most malignancies, results from the acquisition of a combination of (non-inherited) genetic mutations in somatic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • promotes
  • Li D, Yao X, Zhang P. The overexpression of P21-activated kinase 5 (PAK5) promotes paclitaxel-chemoresistance of epithelial ovarian cancer. (springer.com)
  • PLK4 contains these 2 domains in addition to a third PBD, which facilitates oligomerization, targeting, and promotes trans-autophosphorylation, limiting centriole duplication to once per cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The transcription factor SOX11 was markedly overexpressed in the proliferative subtype and associated with phosphorylation of other cell cycle related proteins including CHEK2, WWTR1, and EIF4EBP1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The PAKs are highly conserved serine/threonine and effector proteins for Cdc42 and Rac and are essential in regulating cell motility and survival. (springer.com)
  • For a small number of proteins, such as ornithine decarboxylase ( 13 ), the cell cycle inhibitor p21 ( 40 ), and α-synuclein ( 41 ), it has been suggested that degradation by the proteasome occurs in an ubiquitin-independent manner. (asm.org)
  • It is induced by p53 in response to DNA damage, or by sublytic levels of complement system proteins that result in activation of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein also translocates to the nucleus in response to treatment with complement system proteins, and can associate with and increase the kinase activity of cell division cycle 2 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transition
  • The data showed that DOC-1R overexpression inhibited G1/S phase transition, DNA replication and suppressed CDK2 activity. (ijbs.com)
  • Liu Q, Liu X, Gao J, Shi X, Hu X, Wang S, Luo Y. Overexpression of DOC-1R Inhibits Cell Cycle G1/S Transition by Repressing CDK2 Expression and Activation. (ijbs.com)
  • 2 The Ras proto-oncogene is a central component of mitogenic signaling pathways and is essential for cells to exit into a quiescent state (G0) and to pass through the G1-S transition of the cell cycle. (ahajournals.org)
  • This cyclin forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunit of CDK4 or CDK6, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of Dbf4 at the G1/S transition of the cell cycle is higher than the concentration at the M/G1 transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoint
  • Cells with mutant or deleted tra1 activate Chk1 normally and are checkpoint proficient. (genetics.org)
  • The timing of Cdc2 activation is influenced by multiple checkpoint pathways that monitor the order and fidelity of cell cycle events, thus ensuring the readiness for chromosome segregation to proceed. (genetics.org)
  • As with the core cell cycle machine, this checkpoint is also conserved from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to humans, and a detailed description of the molecular events leading to Chk1 activation has emerged from studies in multiple experimental systems ( K untz and O'C onnell 2009 ). (genetics.org)
  • survival
  • KLF4 is also important in regulating centrosome number and chromosome number (genetic stability), and in promoting cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some studies have revealed that under certain conditions KLF4 may switch its role from pro-cell survival to pro-cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression
  • In this study, we show that miR-17-92 is a cell cycle regulated locus, and ectopic expression of a single microRNA (miR-17-5p) is sufficient to drive a proliferative signal in HEK293T cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on these observations, we postulated that altered Dyrk1A expression in neural cells might adversely affect the normal process of neurogenesis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Expressions of miR-214-3p in 98 HCC patients and three HCC cell lines were detected by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to explore the association of miR-214-3p expression and clinicopathological characteristics. (springer.com)
  • We found that large N-terminal tags also stabilize the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 but not that of substrates ubiquitinated on internal lysine residues. (asm.org)
  • Although expression levels of the protein appear to be constant throughout the cell cycle, the protein kinase activity appears to increase during S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIF1 expression has been seen to increase in vascular tissue in response to arterial injury, specifically it is found in activated vascular smooth muscle cells in response to IFN-γ, IL-1β, and T-cell conditioned media. (wikipedia.org)
  • It does this by shortening the cell cycle and altering the expression of cyclins. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • In male germ cells, this protein is localized to the cytoplasm of primary spermatocytes, the nucleus of spermatids, and the periacrosomal region of mature spermatozoa. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the G1 phase, it is synthesized rapidly and accumulates in the nucleus, and is degraded as the cell enters the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • The Research Center for Medical Genomics, MOH Key Laboratory of Cell Biology and Key Laboratory of Medical Cell Biology, Ministry of Education, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China. (ijbs.com)
  • Nature Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Journal of Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • Isoform NKp44L: Cellular ligand for NCR2/NKp44, may play a role as a danger signal in cytotoxicity and NK-cell-mediated innate immunity. (genecards.org)
  • tumor cells
  • The tumor cells accumulate in the lymphoid system, including lymph nodes and the spleen, with non-useful cells eventually rendering the system dysfunctional. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptotic
  • Mechanistic studies showed that the synergistic cell death was not due to an increase in viral replication but occurred through an enhancement of apoptotic cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During a normal embryologic processes, or during cell injury (such as ischemia-reperfusion injury during heart attacks and strokes) or during developments and processes in cancer, an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation of the DNA and nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • The overexpression of MAP kinase in these cells aids in their proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both invertebrates and mammals, Numb is localized using the Pins/GαI complex and the PAR complex of Bazooka (Par3 in mammals), Par6, and aPKC (atypical protein kinase C). In the sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell, the PAR proteins localize to the posterior pole of the cell, and the Pins/GαI complex is localized to the anterior pole of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • In the study, reporter mice were used to track stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice engineered to specifically have vascular endothelium cells deficient in β-catenin showed disrupted adhesion between vascular endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The experimental elimination of senescent cells from transgenic progeroid mice and non-progeroid, naturally-aged mice led to greater resistance against aging-associated diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gli2 null mice embryos develop neural tube defects which, can be rescued by overexpression of Gli1 (Jacob and Briscoe, 2003). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic mice over-expressing the transcription factor Gli2 under the K5 promoter in cutaneous keratinocytes develop multiple skin tumours on the ears, tail, trunk and dorsal aspect of the paw, resembling those of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In estimates made for mice, DNA lesions occur on average 25 to 115 times per minute in each cell, or about 36,000 to 160,000 per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • basal
  • Elucidation of new regulators affecting hTR basal promoter activity in cancer cells provides a basis for future studies aimed at improving our understanding of the differential hTR expression between normal and cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C-jun has been shown to be essential for fibroblast proliferation, and levels of both AP-1 subunits have been shown to be expressed above basal levels during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neuroblasts, both complexes are localized to the apical cortex, causing apical/basal cell division and daughter cells exhibiting strong size asymmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • In local unfolding, the binding and release cycles induce localized unfolding in the substrate, which helps to overcome kinetic barriers for folding to the native state. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • The molecular regulation of hTR gene transcription in cancer cells remains poorly understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This finding is significant with regard to the stem cell origin of skin cancer, since carcinogen-targeted stem cells can remain dormant for many years until recruited to develop into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other area of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aldolase A (ALDOA) is a highly expressed in multiple cancers, including lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), renal cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogens are important in cancer research due to their effects on the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer is in part defined by a lack of, or failure of, control in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, miR-200 has been shown to promote the last step of metastasis in which migrating cancer cells undergo MET during their colonization at distant tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a series of mouse mammary isogenic cancer cell lines, the miR-200 family is highly expressed only in the cells that are able to form metastases (4T1 cells) but not in other cells which are unable to colonize (4TO7 cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • oncogenes
  • Therefore, if the oncogene or set of oncogenes contributing maximally to a tumor cell's survival can be identified, such oncogene(s) are the most appropriate target(s) for maximizing tumor cell kill. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • In 1956, Francis Crick proposed what is now known as the "central dogma" of biology: DNA encodes the genetic information required for an organism to carry out its life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • motility
  • In LSCC, its upregulation correlates with metastasis and poor prognosis, while its downregulation reduces tumor cell motility and tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • During EMT, cells lose adhesion and increase in motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockdown of miR-141 and miR200b has been shown to reduce E-cadherin expression thus increasing cell motility and inducing EMT. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular senescence
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • The expression in mesenchymal cells is repressed by epigenetic marks and each cluster is repressed by a different mark. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transformed states are the phenotypes that a cell can access which provide a hyperproliferative advantage over the cell's normal counterpart. (biomedcentral.com)
  • substrates
  • In kinetic partitioning, Hsp70s repetitively bind and release substrates in cycles that maintain low concentrations of free substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Another function of Hsc70 is as an ATPase in the disassembly of clathrin-coated vesicles during transport of membrane components through the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • It states that a complex phosphorylation cascade enables aPKC to phosphorylate Numb in the pre-mitotic cell, decreasing its affinity for the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Depending on the needs of the cell, regulatory mechanisms choose which exons, and sometimes introns, to join together. (wikipedia.org)
  • adhesion
  • Cell-cell adhesion complexes are required for simple epithelia in higher organisms to maintain structure, function and polarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratinocytes engineered to not express alpha-catenin have disrupted cell adhesion and activated NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • FISH can also be used to detect and localize specific RNA targets (mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA) in cells, circulating tumor cells, and tissue samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) or frozen tissue sections are fixed, then permeabilized to allow target accessibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, in a population of cells comprising a tissue with replicating cells, mutant cells will tend to be lost. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, infrequent mutations that provide a survival advantage will tend to clonally expand at the expense of neighboring cells in the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • T cells undergo mitosis when stimulated by mitogens to produce small lymphocytes that are then responsible for the production of lymphokines, which are substances that modify the host organism to improve its immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma cells are terminally differentiated and, therefore, cannot undergo mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • The AP-1 transcription factor has been shown to play numerous roles in cell growth and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-fos has also been shown to increase in expression in response to the introduction of growth factors in the cell, further supporting its suggested involvement in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is proposed that ALDOA overexpression enhances glycolysis in these tumor cells, promoting their growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immune cells and neuroimmune molecules such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors modulate brain function through multiple signaling pathways throughout the lifespan. (wikipedia.org)
  • expressing Nrg1 in the absence of heart damage causes uncontrolled growth of heart cells, creating an enlarged heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • We argue here that serum ferritin arises from damaged cells, and is thus a marker of cellular damage. (rsc.org)
  • Taking a systems approach, we develop and summarise the view that "serum ferritin" actually originates from damaged cells (and thus reflects cellular damage), that it contains some iron but has lost or liberated most of its normal content, and that since the protein part of ferritin is assumed to be benign, that it is this (initially) free iron that correlates with and is causative of disease. (rsc.org)
  • If a cell retains DNA damage, transcription of a gene can be prevented and thus translation into a protein will also be blocked. (wikipedia.org)
  • buffer
  • To solve this problem, recombinant E. coli overexpressing GadB was employed as a whole cell biocatalyst in buffer solution containing MSG. (springeropen.com)
  • transition
  • DNA methylation of the mir-200c/mir-141 promoter occurs aberrantly in certain aggressive carcinoma cells that are of epithelial origin, but have undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition and have the mir-200 family silenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • mRNA
  • RNA probes can be designed for any gene or any sequence within a gene for visualization of mRNA, lncRNA and miRNA in tissues and cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • actin
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)