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  • pathways
  • The Cignal E2F Reporter Assay Kit is designed to monitor the activity of E2F-regulated signaling pathways in cultured cells. (qiagen.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that the PDM is able to distinguish cell types and treatments with higher accuracy than is obtained through other approaches, and that the Pathway-PDM application is a valuable technique for identifying disease-associated pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • phases
  • Here, systems pharmacodynamic (PD) models that integrate cellular response data and extend a prototype model framework were developed to characterize dynamic changes in cell cycle phases of cancer cell subpopulations in response to gemcitabine and trabectedin as single agents and in combination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Systems cell cycle models were developed based on observed mechanisms and were used to characterize both cell proliferation and cell numbers in the sub G 1 , G 0 / G 1 , S , and G 2 / M phases in the control and drug-treated groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • tissue
  • PharmaMar S.A.U., Madrid, Spain) is a promising anticancer agent that has demonstrated clinical activity in many drug-resistant cancer cell lines, and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for advanced soft tissue sarcoma. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cells from primary tumors must detach, invade stromal tissue, and penetrate vessels by which they disseminate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • gene
  • Eukaryotic cell division is a complex process, with many layers of regulation at the level of gene transcription, protein production, localization, modification, and degradation. (pnas.org)
  • The timing of gene expression is also an important factor in various analyses of gene coexpression networks, evolution of regulation, global organization of transcription, inferring transcription factor specificities, and many other analyses ( 7 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • The timing of gene expression by using such data and methods, therefore, is not interpretable beyond assigning transcripts to main cell cycle phases in which their expression peaks: G 1 (gap 1), S (DNA synthesis), G 2 (gap 2), M (mitosis), and M/G 1 ( 1 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here we present a unique approach to the timing of cell cycle-regulated gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • Phytochemical study and evaluation of cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, cell cycle kinetics and gene expression of Bauhinia holophylla (Bong. (springer.com)
  • This study evaluated the phytochemical properties, cytotoxic, apoptotic, mutagenic/antimutagenic effects and alterations in gene expression (RNAm) in HepG2 cells treated with the B. holophylla extract. (springer.com)
  • We observed an increase in gene expression in cancer tissue compared to adjacent tissue in the first group of patients in all genes measured. (springer.com)
  • Expression of genes positively associated with per2 gene expression was dependent on tumor staging and changes were observed preferentially in cancer tissue. (springer.com)
  • The relevancy of gene expression for determination of diagnosis and prognosis should be considered in relation to tumor staging. (springer.com)
  • To study the signals and pathways underlying spore germination we examined the global changes in gene expression and followed cell-cycle and germination markers during this process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aiming at identifying molecular pathways associated with these clinically well-defined prognostic factors, we did gene expression profiling on 60 prospectively collected samples of first relapse patients enrolled on the relapse trial ALL-REZ BFM 2002 of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster study group. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We show here that patients with very early relapse of ALL are characterized by a distinctive gene expression pattern. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell division cycle-associated protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDCA3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division cycle-associated protein 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDCA7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of this gene is found to enhance the transformation of lymphoblastoid cells, and it complements a transformation-defective Myc Box II mutant, suggesting its involvement in c-Myc-mediated cell transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division cycle 23 homolog (S. cerevisiae), also known as CDC23, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CDC23 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene product contains 2 PXXP motifs, which are required for its transforming and tumorigenic activities, as well as for its stimulation of basic fibroblast growth factor expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • MicroRNAs are an abundant class of molecules, approximately 22 nucleotides in length, which can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding to the 3' UTR of mRNAs expressed in a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Downstream effects of this include regulation of gene expression and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that in monocytes-macrophages and fibroblasts, exogenously administered PDGF stimulates chemotaxis, proliferation, and gene expression and significantly augmented the influx of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, accelerating extracellular matrix and collagen formation and thus reducing the time for the healing process to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complete knockout of H1 in vivo has not been achieved in multicellular organisms due to the existence of multiple isoforms that may be present in several gene clusters, but various linker histone isoforms have been depleted to varying degrees in Tetrahymena, C. elegans, Arabidopsis, fruit fly, and mouse, resulting in various organism-specific defects in nuclear morphology, chromatin structure, DNA methylation, and/or specific gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle protein 20 is an essential regulator of cell division that is encoded by the CDC20 gene in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple different mechanisms inhibit Cdks in G1: Cdk inhibitor proteins are expressed, and cyclin gene expression is down-regulated. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • Zińczuk J, Zaręba K, Guzińska-Ustymowicz K, Kędra B, Kemona A, Pryczynicz A. Expression of chosen cell cycle and proliferation markers in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. (termedia.pl)
  • Ki67 is a determinant of proliferation, i.e. fractions of cells multiplying in a given population, and can be used in routine histopathological diagnostics of cancers. (termedia.pl)
  • Here, we investigated the effect of increased NDRG2 levels on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in skeletal muscle cells under basal and stress conditions. (nih.gov)
  • NDRG2 overexpression increased C2C12 myoblast proliferation and the expression of positive cell cycle regulators, cdk2, cyclin B and cyclin D, and phosphorylation of Rb, while the serine/threonine-deficient NDRG2, 3A-NDRG2, had less effect. (nih.gov)
  • During H2O2 treatment to induce oxidative stress, NDRG2 helped protect against the loss of proliferation and ER stress as measured by GRP78 expression with 3A-NDRG2 displaying less protection. (nih.gov)
  • The expression of negative cell cycle regulators following NDRG2 and 3A-NDRG2 overexpression in myoblasts at days 2 and 3 of proliferation (P2 and P3) and at confluence (D0). (nih.gov)
  • Leukocytes, such as lymphocytes and macrophages, predominantly express delayed rectifier K(+) channels (Kv1.3), and the channels play crucial roles in the activation and proliferation of the cells. (nih.gov)
  • An increase in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity is associated with vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and rapamycin, which blocks the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin, inhibits this proliferation in vitro and in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cortical development is a complex process that involves many events including proliferation, cell cycle exit, and differentiation that need to be appropriately synchronized. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In this study, we exogenously expressed the homeodomain transcription factor Pitx2, usually expressed in postmitotic neurons of the embryonic cortex, in NSCs with low expression of endogenous Pitx2, and found that Pitx2 expression induced a rapid decrease in proliferation associated with an accumulation of NSCs in G1 phase. (oregonstate.edu)
  • When this spirals out of control, it can cause uncontrolled cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to driving mesenchymal proliferation, PDGFs have been shown to direct the migration, differentiation and function of a variety of specialised mesenchymal and migratory cell types, both during development and in the adult animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • A) p27 mRNA (upper panel) and protein (lower panel) expression, and (B) p21 mRNA (upper panel) and protein (lower panel) expression with representative blots indicated. (nih.gov)
  • The cortical expression of Cdk4 mRNA was significantly decreased after margatoxin treatment (Figure 3(C), left), and that of p21 mRNA was significantly increased after the treatment (right). (nih.gov)
  • Both ER β 1 mRNA and protein expression increased from the G1 to the S phase and decreased before entering the G2/M phase, whereas ER β 2 levels decreased during the S phase and increased in the G2/M phase. (hindawi.com)
  • Mechanism
  • Our results demonstrate that, in LNCaP prostate cancer cells, both ER β isoforms are differentially expressed during the cell cycle and that ER β regulates the G1 phase by a non-genomic mechanism. (hindawi.com)
  • We have used Hep3B and Saos2 cells as models to study the mechanism of viral selective replication. (aacrjournals.org)
  • mitosis
  • and an endochitinase, crucial for cell separation after mitosis ( CTS1 ). (pnas.org)
  • It also targets S and M-phase (S/M) cyclins for destruction, which inactivates S/M cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and allows the cell to exit from mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • S/M cyclins activate cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), which have a vast array of downstream effects that work to guide the cell through mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • They must be degraded for cells to exit mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, when cdk activity is high in mitosis, and the cell must prepare to enter anaphase and exit mitosis, the APC/CCdc20 complex is activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Our results reveal distinct subphases of the cell cycle undetectable by morphological observation, as well as the precise timeline of macromolecular complex assembly during key cell cycle events. (pnas.org)
  • cellular
  • PDGF is a required element in cellular division for fibroblasts, a type of connective tissue cell that is especially prevalent in wound healing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without E1B-19k, degradation of both cellular and viral DNA occurs, in addition to premature host cell death during the lytic cycle, thus limiting viral replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • Previous whole-genome studies of the yeast cell cycle relied on microarray data from artificially synchronized cultures grown under nutrient-rich laboratory conditions ( 1 , 3 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • markers
  • In the present study, using a rat model with advanced CRF that underwent 5/6 nephrectomy followed by a 14-week recovery period, we examined the histopathological features of the kidneys and the leukocyte expression of Kv1.3-channels and cell cycle markers. (nih.gov)
  • regulate
  • Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division. (wikipedia.org)
  • prognosis
  • T-lineage immunophenotype seen in ∼15% of relapse patients generally implies an inferior prognosis than B-cell precursor immunophenotype ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Additionally, in the group of intermediate-risk patients, molecular monitoring of the amount of residual leukemic cells during treatment [minimal residual disease (MRD)] allows the identification of a subgroup with high burden of persisting leukemic cells and significantly inferior prognosis ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • HeLa
  • Mir-22 was originally identified in HeLa cells (an immortal cell line derived from cervical cancer cells), but was later found to be ubiquitously expressed in various tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • Using the ear hole closure phenotype, a genetically mapped and reliable quantitative indicator of regeneration in the MRL mouse, we show that the unrelated Cdkn1a tmi/Tyj /J p21 −/− mouse (unlike the B6129SF2/J WT control) closes ear holes similar to MRL mice, providing a firm link between cell cycle checkpoint control and tissue regeneration. (pnas.org)
  • human
  • Atienzar FA, Novik EI, Gerets HH, Parekh A, Delatour C, Cardenas A, MacDonald J, Yarmush ML, Dhalluin S (2014) Predictivity of dog co-culture model, primary human hepatocytes and HepG2 cells for the detection of hepatotoxic drugs in humans. (springer.com)
  • We have analyzed the levels of ER β 1 and ER β 2 throughout the cell cycle, as well as the mechanisms of action and the consequences of the over-expression of ER β 1 in the human prostate cancer LNCaP cell line. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we examined the anti-cancer effect of mimosine on human H226 lung cancer cells grown in nude mice. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • genomes
  • In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid
  • Furthermore, NDRG2 attenuates H2O2-induced oxidative stress and specific serine and threonine amino acid residues appear to contribute to its function in muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • blastema
  • Development and regeneration involves the coordination and organization of populations cells into a blastema, which is "a mound of stem cells from which regeneration begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • Neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from embryonic cortex are characterized by their ability of self-renewal under continued maintenance of multipotency. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Cellular
  • Polyamines are ubiquitous small molecules involved in many normal cellular functions, including transcribing and translating genes, regulating ion channels and cell-to-cell interactions, and powering cell growth and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • While less attention is directed at α-catenin in studies involving cell adhesion, it is nonetheless an important player in cellular organization, function and growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice lacking plakoglobin have cell adhesion defects in many tissues, although β-catenin substitutes for plakoglobin at many cellular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • coli cells
  • The yield and productivity of gamma-aminobutyric acid might be significantly improved if the overexpressed GadB in E. coli cells can be excreted outside, where it can directly transforms monosodium glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. (springeropen.com)
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • checkpoint
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA-binding activity of the ubiquitously expressed ABL1 tyrosine kinase is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function for ABL1. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such inhibitor is imatinib mesylate, which occupies the tyrosine kinase domain and inhibits BCR-ABL's influence on the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citric
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Junctions
  • These complexes, which help regulate cell growth in addition to creating and maintaining epithelial layers, are known as adherens junctions and they typically include at least cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin. (wikipedia.org)
  • First of all, by binding to cadherin receptor intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains, it can act as an integral component of a protein complex in adherens junctions that helps cells maintain epithelial layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin acts by anchoring the actin cytoskeleton to the junctions, and may possibly aid in contact inhibition signaling within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, when an epithelial layer is complete and the adherens junctions indicate that the cell is surrounded, β-catenin may play a role in telling the cell to stop proliferating, as there is no room for more cells in the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • α-catenin participates in the formation and stabilization of adherens junctions by binding to β-catenin-cadherin complexes in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • skeletal muscle
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • LRH-1 expression patterns in breast cancer tissues are associated with tumour aggressiveness. (nih.gov)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Coat colour in mammals is determined by the presence, distribution and biochemical activity of the melanocytes, which are specialized cells where eumelanins (black/brown pigments) and pheomelanins (yellow/red pigments) are synthesized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biochemical triggers known as cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) switch on cell cycles events at the corrected time and in the correct order to prevent any mistakes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alzheimer's
  • The new study's findings show that when BACE1-AS (pronounced base) is exposed to stress, it stabilizes BACE1 messenger RNA, increasing expression of BACE1 and leading to higher levels of amyloid-β 1-42, the peptide believed to be the primary cause of Alzheimer's disease. (scripps.edu)
  • Different cell stressors have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. (scripps.edu)
  • inhibit
  • In the study, Wahlestedt and his colleagues used a synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA) - which can inhibit gene expression - to decrease BACE1-AS expression in animal models and reduce amyloid generation successfully. (scripps.edu)
  • stem cells
  • Gilmour provided the first evidence that elevated epidermal levels of polyamines alone can positively affect the recruitment of bulge stem cells in the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This finding is significant with regard to the stem cell origin of skin cancer, since carcinogen-targeted stem cells can remain dormant for many years until recruited to develop into a tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytotoxic
  • It is a peptidase enhanced cytotoxic (PEnC) that exerts a targeted delivery of melphalan in cells with high expression of aminopeptidases, such as aminopeptidase N, which has been described as over-expressed in human malignancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melflufen is a peptidase enhanced cytotoxic (PEnC) with a targeted delivery within tumor cells of melphalan, a widely used classical chemotherapeutic belonging to a group of alkylating agents developed more than 50 years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant
  • To solve this problem, recombinant E. coli overexpressing GadB was employed as a whole cell biocatalyst in buffer solution containing MSG. (springeropen.com)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • malignant
  • She discovered that overexpression of ODC and c-Raf activation is sufficient to convert a normal primary keratinocyte into a malignant, invasive tumor cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • As a result, its levels in the cell are stabilized as it builds up in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthetic
  • During this phase, the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which are considerably slowed down during M phase, resume at a high rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • Organisms of some taxonomic groups, including some animals, experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • dependent
  • Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • represents
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • growth
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physiological temperatures are optimal for cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein synthesis, otherwise the cell will move into G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not been completed. (wikipedia.org)
  • These gene products are important in determining cell fates during normal development and in maintaining homeostasis, or they can lead to de-regulated growth in disorders like cancer by responding to mutations in β-catenin, APC or Axin, each of which can lead to this de-regulated β-catenin level stabilization in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • In the study, Wahlestedt and his colleagues exposed cells to a number of them including hyperthermia, serum starvation, and two forms of amyloid β, hydrogen peroxide and high glucose. (scripps.edu)
  • Daxx is uniformly expressed throughout the body, except in the testes and thymus, which have especially high expression of the protein. (wikipedia.org)