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  • Pancreatic
  • Loss of Uchl1 increases the susceptibility of pancreatic beta-cells to programmed cell death, indicating that this protein plays a protective role in neuroendocrine cells and illustrating a link between diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurons
  • Expression of UCH-L1 is highly specific to neurons and to cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system and their tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is abundantly present in all neurons (accounts for 1-2% of total brain protein), expressed specifically in neurons and testis/ovary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely
  • Rarely (3-5% of the time), the primary tumor cannot be found because it is too small, or because it has regressed due to immune system activity or other factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely, germ cell tumors can spread to the bone, bone marrow, and other organs. (rochester.edu)
  • Though tumor markers are rarely specific enough to be used alone to diagnose cancer, they do have a number of clinical uses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • biopsy
  • A diagnosis of CUP requires a clinical picture consistent with metastatic disease and one or more biopsy results inconsistent with a primary tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • When used for diagnosis, tumor markers are used in conjunction with other clinical parameters such as biopsy and radiological findings. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The diagnosis of an intracranial germinoma usually is based on biopsy, as the features on neuroimaging appear similar to other tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their diagnosis is histological: only a biopsy of the tumour can make an exact diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • marker
  • Alpha-fetoprotein is also produced by certain cancers , such as liver or testicular cancer , and is sometimes measured as a tumor marker (see below). (medicinenet.com)
  • The AFP tumor marker test can be performed on a blood sample, urine sample, or sample of amniotic fluid. (medicinenet.com)
  • However, no tumor marker is specific for cancer and most are found in low levels in healthy persons, or can be associated with non-neoplastic diseases as well as cancer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Also, no tumor marker test is free of false negatives or false positives. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Once cancer is diagnosed, tumor marker levels sometimes help to determine the extent of cancer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The choice of tumor marker to use for monitoring is important. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Each tumor marker has a unique life span in the blood. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Watching for cancer recurrence after treatment is another reason for tumor marker testing. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tumor marker tests are performed in a lab using immunological techniques. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If that tumor marker is present, these very specific antibodies bind to the markers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • From this measurement, the amount of tumor marker is calculated. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Conclusions based on tumor marker tests are seldom based on one test result but on a series of test results, called serial measurements. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tumor marker testing is currently the object of much research and attention. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Not all tumor receptor marker tests are widely available nor are they widely accepted. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bosl GJ, Ilson DH, Rodriguez E, Motzer RJ, Reuter V, Chaganti RSK (1994) Clinical relevance of the i(12p) marker chro¬¨mosome in germ cell tumors. (springer.com)
  • Most dysgerminomas are associated with elevated serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), which is sometimes used as a tumor marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • There may be elevations in serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels but it would be in association with other tumors, (e.g. yolk sac tumor) because they themselves do not produce the serum markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tests may include blood chemistries, evaluation of liver and kidney functions, tumor cell markers, and genetic studies. (rochester.edu)
  • Tumor markers are measurable biochemicals that are associated with a malignancy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although there are a multitude of tumor markers, very few of them have found their way into clinical practice because of their lack of specificity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Monitoring cancer treatment is the most common use of tumor markers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Often serum and spinal fluid tumor markers of AFP and beta-HCG are tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • metastases
  • It is generally accepted that cancer of unknown primary site exists because the primary tumor is not identified due to clinical or technological inefficiencies, or because the primary tumor regresses or stays dormant after spreading the cancer cells that generate the metastases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tumour may present as signs and symptoms relating to the presence of widespread metastases, without any palpable lump in the testis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Placing a given tumor into one of categories depends on well-defined histological features: size, lymphovascular invasion, mitotic counts, Ki-67 labelling index, invasion of adjacent organs, presence of metastases and whether they produce hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuroendocrine
  • Traditionally, neuroendocrine tumors have been classified by their anatomic site of origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the broad category of neuroendocrine tumors there are many different tumor types: this outline is presented to facilitate retrieving information. (wikipedia.org)
  • parathyroid
  • Tumors with similar cellular characteristics in the pituitary, parathyroid, and adrenomedullary glands are sometimes included or excluded. (wikipedia.org)