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  • BMPs
  • Pubmed ID: 11854453 Receptors for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily, are persistently expressed during cardiac development, yet mice lacking type II or type IA BMP receptors die at gastrulation and cannot be used to assess potential later roles in creation of the heart. (jove.com)
  • Epithelium-derived signals such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), sonic hedgehog (SHH), and WNT induce autoregulatory positive signaling and mutual inhibitory feedback within and between the epithelium and the mesenchyme to orchestrate the molecular interplay required for lower-jaw outgrowth ( 5 , 7 - 13 ). (asm.org)
  • molecular
  • Since Hoxa2 deregulation in mice induces a proportionate short stature phenotype mimicking human idiopathic conditions, our results give an insight into understanding proportionate short stature pathogenesis by highlighting molecular factors whose combined deregulation may be involved in such a disease. (mdpi.com)
  • cellular
  • Based on our current understanding of Myod, it is reasonable to suggest that the regulated activity of a single factor that broadly interacts with many cellular components might be a common mechanism for orchestrating a complex response to an initiating event. (biologists.org)
  • certain
  • Because suture fusion occurs within certain sutures as a normal sequence in cranial vault growth, the ability of the dura to secrete these factors is hypothesized to differ depending on vault location and ontogenetic timing (Greenwald et al. (wiley.com)
  • cell
  • Also provided are methods of generating functional tendon grafts in vitro and bone, cartilage and connective tissues in vivo using the isolated cell preparation of connective tissue progenitor cells. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • growth
  • 2000 ). A second suite of functional events influencing suture growth patterning arise from external biomechanical loads that are dissipated throughout the craniofacial architecture. (wiley.com)
  • The main causes of short stature are well known and can be classified as either primary (associated with Turner syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta or IGF-I deficit, for example) or secondary (a consequence of malnutrition, growth hormone deficiency or irradiation, for example). (mdpi.com)