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  • Evolution
  • As studies have begun to illuminate the genetic bases for trait evolution in these cavefish, it has become increasingly important to understand these phenotypic changes within the context of cavefish origins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Past population-level analyses have sought to: 1) estimate at what time in the geological past cave forms became isolated from surface-dwelling ancestors, 2) define the extent to which cave form populations originated from a common invasion (single origin hypothesis) or several invasions (multiple origin hypothesis), and 3) clarify the role of geological and climatic events in Astyanax cavefish evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Until recently, our ability to draw conclusions on fundamental questions pertinent to the evolution of Astyanax has remained limited by an incomplete understanding of the origin of these fascinating creatures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • climatic
  • The disturbance-vicariance hypothesis refers to the presumed effect of cold/warm climatic phases of the Pleistocene only and is of limited general relevance because most extant species originated earlier and probably through paleogeographic changes and the formation of ecological refuges during the Tertiary. (scielo.br)
  • exposure
  • The Hygiene Hypothesis (HH) attributes the dramatic increase in autoimmune and allergic diseases observed in recent decades in Western countries to the reduced exposure to diverse immunoregulatory infectious agents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the key hypotheses to explain programming, namely over exposure of the developing fetus to glucocorticoids, was proposed nearly two decades ago, following the observation that the fetus was protected from high glucocorticoid levels in the mother by the actions of the placental barrier enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which converts active glucocorticoids into inactive products. (biomedsearch.com)
  • effect
  • The analysis of this question leads to a p-value , the probability you would see an equal or greater effect under the null hypothesis. (matatat.org)
  • Article
  • This realization, is due in a great part to Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson (henceforth G&A) and their influent 2003 Nature article , in which they argued that a robust estimate, consistent with the Anatolian hypothesis of Indo-European origins (left), could be inferred from lexicaldata. (blogspot.com)
  • This article presents a theoretical framework of PLP that can be used as groundwork for hypotheses of novel treatments. (frontiersin.org)
  • present
  • In addition, I present a hypothesis for the working mechanism of Phantom Motor Execution (PME) as a treatment of PLP, along with its relation to the aforementioned stochastic entanglement hypothesis, which deals with PLP's incipience. (frontiersin.org)
  • early
  • During early stages of the exploration of Amazonia, naturalists already posed the question of the origin of the innumerable species of animals that inhabit these vast rainforests. (scielo.br)
  • changes
  • The PME hypothesis entails that training of phantom movements induces gradual neural changes similar to those of perfecting a motor skill, and these purposefully induced neural changes disentangle pain processing circuitry by competitive plasticity. (frontiersin.org)