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  • biology
  • PES Biology Human Awareness Essay: Human CloningBackgroundHuman cloning is a highly publicized, groundbreaking topic. (essaypride.com)
  • To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, we've highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. (thermofisher.com)
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cell biology, ways in which fragmentation is useful for a cell: DNA cloning and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The continued success of tissue engineering, and the eventual development of true human replacement parts, will grow from the convergence of engineering and basic research advances in tissue, matrix, growth factor, stem cell, and developmental biology, as well as materials science and bio informatics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell biology research extends to both the great diversities of single-celled organisms like bacteria and the complex specialized cells in multicellular organisms like humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell biology can be described as all of the following: Branch of science - A systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell biology - (formerly cytology) The study of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular differentiation - A concept in developmental biology whereby less specialized cells become a more specialized cell type in multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • All commonly used cloning vectors in molecular biology have key features necessary for their function, such as a suitable cloning site and selectable marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant DNA molecule
  • After a single recombinant DNA molecule (composed of a vector plus an inserted DNA fragment) is introduced into a host cell, the inserted DNA can be replicated along with the vector, generating a large number of identical DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • This breakthrough opens the door to the possibility for the cloning of other mammals including humans. (essaypride.com)
  • The Bioethical Focus article entitled "Cloning in Humans" gives us some basic background information on cloning. (essaypride.com)
  • A clone is grown using another humans intent , the people or persons making the clone, not the soul using its own intent before reincarnating into this world via the unborn child. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Stem cell laws are the law rules, and policy governance concerning the sources, research, and uses in treatment of stem cells in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Clone - 1) An exact genetic replica of a DNA molecule, cell, tissue, organ, or entire plant or animal. (chipbennett.net)
  • Dr. Paul McHugh, psychiatry professor at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, argues that "without fooling around with it," the cloning process does not produce a viable human organism and should be regarded as tissue culture. (lifeissues.net)
  • For replacement of larger body regions, tissue cloning is vital. (epochtimes.today)
  • In other words, the egg needs to erase all tissue-specific memories from the skin cell and revert it into a genomic blank slate. (eurekalert.org)
  • Much more likely is that these animals were derived from fully differentiated tissue cells," Dr. Yang argues. (medgadget.com)
  • Doris Taylor's heart in a jar Tissue-engineered airway Tissue-engineered vessels Artificial skin constructed from human skin cells embedded in a hydrogel, such as in the case of bioprinted constructs for battlefield burn repairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial bone marrow Artificial bone Laboratory-grown penis Oral mucosa tissue engineering Foreskin Tissue engineering utilizes living cells as engineering materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells have been used to repair tissue damaged by disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCNT
  • It is my opinion the SCNT does produce, in the primate, a nonviable organism," he said March 4 at a public bioethics council meeting. (lifeissues.net)
  • Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) is the process by which the nucleus of an oocyte (egg cell) is removed and is replaced with the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell (examples include skin, heart, or nerve cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • In human SCNT (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer) experiments, these eggs are obtained through consenting donors, utilizing ovarian stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • blastocyst
  • The scientist can then either remove the stem cells from this blastocyst, or place it into a uterus where it has the potential to develop into a fetus. (eurekalert.org)
  • But this entire process is almost never perfect, and nearly all cells in a cloned blastocyst retain some memory of their original source. (eurekalert.org)
  • Studies have demonstrated that a small number of stem cells in the blastocyst appear to be spared this faulty reprogramming. (eurekalert.org)
  • When stem cells from a cloned blastocyst are removed and placed into a dish, most die. (eurekalert.org)
  • Of the 1,828 nuclear transfers we performed with stem cells, very few could develop to the blastocyst stage and not one clone was produced. (medgadget.com)
  • involves
  • Nuclear transfer involves the use of two cells. (essaypride.com)
  • The process of somatic cell nuclear transplant involves two different cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike traditionally animal and plant breeding, which involves doing multiple crosses and then selecting for the organism with the desired phenotype, genetic engineering takes the gene directly from one organism and inserts it in the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial pancreas: research involves using islet cells to produce and regulate insulin, particularly in cases of diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenotype
  • Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • EDITOR'S NOTE: Two of the most hotly debated and currently controversial topics-in the fields of science, religion, ethics, and politics-are human cloning and stem-cell research. (apologeticspress.org)
  • When the editors of Time screamed on the cover of their February 19, 2001 issue, "Human Cloning is Closer than You Think! (apologeticspress.org)
  • Cloning Attempts to create a human being by cloning should be banned for several reasons. (essaypride.com)
  • Although cloning has some benefits, attempts to clone a human will bring up many moral and ethical issues. (essaypride.com)
  • Cloning occurs naturally and is also engineered by human beings. (essaypride.com)
  • The effects of cloning and most importantly human cloning could change society and the biological world, as we know it. (essaypride.com)
  • One of the most recent bioethical issues facing society is the idea of human cloning. (essaypride.com)
  • Posts in this category pertain to abortion, human cloning, embryonic stem cell research, and other issues pertaining to the advancement of the culture of life and to the respect and protection of the sanctity of life. (chipbennett.net)
  • The measure specifically bans human cloning, but would permit all federally allowed stem cell research in the state. (chipbennett.net)
  • Business and medical leaders strongly support the measure while religious and anti-abortion leaders have campaigned against it, saying the procedure amounts to human cloning . (chipbennett.net)
  • it specifically allows human cloning, and specifically prohibits the state legislature from prohibiting human cloning. (chipbennett.net)
  • 2) "Clone or attempt to clone a human being" means to implant in a uterus or attempt to implant in a uterus anything other than the product of fertilization of an egg of a human female by a sperm of a human male for the purpose of initiating a pregnancy that could result in the creation of a human fetus, or the birth of a human being. (chipbennett.net)
  • Human cloning and stem cells have been major topics for the council. (lifeissues.net)
  • When many people hear the word cloning, they imagine armies of human clones created for nefarious purposes. (epochtimes.today)
  • However, the cloning of animal organs is not so easy for human researchers to accomplish. (epochtimes.today)
  • This is the problem the Greys have with the hybrids, and this is why the human clones do not have an energy field, because Spirit can't attach to it, and this is also because there was no intent in it's creation (in terms of self-maintaining consciousness). (abovetopsecret.com)
  • She had given them an article about a human cloning experiment in South Korea and had given them thoughtful questions to answer about both the ethics and science of the practice. (blogspot.com)
  • And now they were shouting over each other to condemn human cloning. (blogspot.com)
  • 2004. Derivation of Embryonic Stem-Cell Lines from Human Blastocysts. (godandscience.org)
  • Commonly a virus that has been altered to carry human DNA is used to deliver the healthy gene to the targeted cells of the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • The history of botany examines the human effort to understand life on Earth by tracing the historical development of the discipline of botany-that part of natural science dealing with organisms traditionally treated as plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus of a cell
  • Materials used in this procedure are a microscope, a holding pipette (small vacuum) to keep the oocyte in place, and a micropipette (hair-thin needle) capable of extracting the nucleus of a cell using a vacuum. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • The gametes, the sperm and the egg, are both highly specialized haploid cells that will combine chromosomes. (essaypride.com)
  • Six hours later, the husband's sperm cells are added. (essaypride.com)
  • Meiosis is a special type of cell division that occurs during formation of sperm and egg cells and gives them the correct number of chromosomes. (essaypride.com)
  • However, problems within a cell can sometimes cause fragmentation that results in irregularities such as red blood cell fragmentation and sperm cell DNA fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • reproduce
  • It is quick, allowing organisms to reproduce rapidly and so take advantage of the resources in their enivronment. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, a solitary organism is one in which all individuals live independently and have all of the functions needed to survive and reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • viable
  • Microbial culture collections focus on the acquisition, authentication, production, preservation, catalogueing and distribution of viable cultures of standard reference microorganisms, cell lines and other materials for research in microbial systematics. (wikipedia.org)
  • animal
  • The cells of an individual plant or animal are clones because they all descend from a single fertilized cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cloning is the production of one or more individual plants or animals that are genetically identical to another plant or animal. (essaypride.com)
  • The recipient cell is normally an unfertilized egg taken from an animal soon after ovulation. (essaypride.com)
  • C. Animal cloning. (epochtimes.today)
  • But animal cloning has encountered several obstacles. (epochtimes.today)
  • Researchers have tried to test the integrity of these surviving stem cells by transplanting them into fertilized blastocysts and then observing the overall health of the resulting animal. (eurekalert.org)
  • In my opinion, these results solidify the argument that while a cloned animal is abnormal, a cloned stem cell is perfectly normal," says Jaenisch. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is the first demonstration that an animal can be derived directly from a fully differentiated cell, report lead researchers Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang, Ph.D., of the University of Connecticut, and Tao Cheng, M.D., of the University of Pittsburgh, in the journal Nature Genetics. (medgadget.com)
  • These reagents are also active in plant cells and in animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal cell - Eukaryotic cells belonging to kingdom Animalia, characteristically having no cell wall or chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • A pure (or axenic) culture is a population of cells or multicellular organisms growing in the absence of other species or types. (wikipedia.org)
  • He introduced cellular nuclear transfer technology to the Chinese biological community, developed methods to clone organisms from many marine species, and investigated the role of cytoplasm in early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because this activity can vary depending on the species, cell type, target gene, and nuclease used, it should be monitored when designing new systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • A biofilm is a colony of microorganisms often comprising several species, with properties and capabilities greater than the aggregate of capabilities of the individual organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • Cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of an original. (chipbennett.net)
  • Cloning is the process of making a genetically identical organism through nonsexual means. (chipbennett.net)
  • Production of cloned DNA is a natural process for grotwth and reproduction, which can be achieved by artificial means. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • The term clone, invented by J. B. S. Haldane, is derived from the Ancient Greek word κλών klōn, "twig", referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear transfer is a delicate process that is a major hurdle in the development of cloning technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • acclimation - the process of an organism adjusting to chronic change in its environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis is the programmed destruction of cells, and the DNA molecules within them, and is a highly regulated process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular and nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and fragmentation, formation of apoptotic bodies and phagocytosis by neighboring cells characterize the main morphological changes in the apoptosis process. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is used in the cloning of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic engineering is a process that alters the genetic make-up of an organism by either removing or introducing DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic engineering does not normally include traditional breeding, in vitro fertilisation, induction of polyploidy, mutagenesis and cell fusion techniques that do not use recombinant nucleic acids or a genetically modified organism in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division - The process of one parent cell separating into two or more daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this TOPO cloning method a linearized vector is activated by attaching topoisomerase I to its ends, and this "TOPO-activated" vector may then accept a PCR product by ligating both the 5' ends of the PCR product, releasing the topoisomerase and forming a circular vector in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • This typically works by disrupting or removing the lethal gene during the cloning process, and unsuccessful clones where the lethal gene still remains intact would kill the host cells, therefore only successful clones are selected. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening (alpha-factor complementation) on X-gal medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning is generally first performed using Escherichia coli, and cloning vectors in E. coli include plasmids, bacteriophages (such as phage λ), cosmids, and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning vectors in yeast include yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the cloning vectors used often have elements necessary for their propagation and maintenance in E. coli, such as a functional origin of replication (ori). (wikipedia.org)
  • All cloning vectors have features that allow a gene to be conveniently inserted into the vector or removed from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Other cloning vectors may use topoisomerase instead of ligase and cloning may be done more rapidly without the need for restriction digest of the vector or insert. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene, once cloned into the cloning vector (called entry clone in this method), may be conveniently introduced into a variety of expression vectors by recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • DNA cloning is important in asexual reproduction or creation of identical DNA molecules, and can be performed spontaneously by the cell or intentionally by laboratory researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only relatively small DNA molecules can be cloned in any available vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular respiration - The metabolic reactions and processes that take place in a cell or across the cell membrane to convert biochemical energy from fuel molecules into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release the cell's waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • refers
  • Apoptosis refers to the demise of cells by a specific form of programmed cell death, characterized by a well-defined sequence of morphological changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the context of microbiology, enucleation refers to removing the nuclear body of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • In their studies, the researchers compared the efficiency for cloning mice using a fully differentiated blood cell called a granulocyte with its ancestor cells at different stages: hematopoietic stem cells, which are found in bone marrow and give rise to all red and white blood cells, and progenitor cells. (medgadget.com)
  • DNA cloning can also be performed intentionally by laboratory researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to modern stem cell researchers, Spain is one of the leaders in stem cell research and currently has one of the most progressive legislations worldwide with respect to hESC research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian Cells
  • citation needed] Before this, laboratory cultures of healthy, noncancerous mammalian cells would only divide a fixed number of times, up to the Hayflick limit, before dying. (wikipedia.org)
  • nutrients
  • After conception, the zygote (fertilized egg) is allowed to divide and nutrients are added to promote cell division. (essaypride.com)
  • To that end, being physically connected allows the colonial organism to distribute nutrients and energy obtained by feeding zooids throughout the colony. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • Virus cultures are obtained from their appropriate eukaryotic host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endosymbiotic theory - The evolutionary theory that certain eukaryotic organelles originated as separate prokaryotic organisms which were taken inside the cell as endosymbionts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plant cell - Eukaryotic cells belonging to kingdom Plantae and having chloroplasts, cellulose cell walls, and large central vacuoles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protist - A highly variable kingdom of eukaryotic organisms which are mostly unicellular and not plants, animals, or fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Clones of cells and some plants and animals can also be produced in a laboratory. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These two ways in which fragmentation is used in cellular processes describe normal cellular functions and common laboratory procedures performed with cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic scheme for this can be summarized as follows: Vector + DNA Fragment ↓ Recombinant DNA ↓ Replication of recombinant DNA within host cell ↓ Isolation, sequencing, and manipulation of purified DNA fragment There are numerous experimental variations to this scheme, but these steps are essential to DNA cloning in a laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Some DNA, however, cannot be stably maintained in E. coli, for example very large DNA fragments, and other organisms such as yeast may be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • clonal colony
  • A somewhat similar concept is that of clonal colony (also called a genet), wherein the cells (usually unicellular) also share a common ancestry, but which also requires the products of clonal expansion to reside at "one place", or in close proximity. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligase
  • For the purposes of DNA cloning, purified DNA ligase is used to covalently join the ends of a restriction fragment and vector DNA that have complimentary ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another method of cloning without the use of DNA digest and ligase is by DNA recombination, for example as used in the Gateway cloning system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Found in the nucleus of every cell, building blocks from which every organism is built, gene information, & can act as receptors for drug molecules. (cram.com)
  • Among the many methods used to genetically modify an organism is gene insertion, which is injecting an organism with a gene it does not originally possess. (macalester.edu)
  • Customers obtain a clonal HAP1 cell line, bearing a frameshift mutation in an exon of the gene of interest. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • The subsequent rise in molecular engineering prowess - molecular cloning, recombinant technologies, gene editing, inducible promoters, light-sensitive promoters - has equipped man with the ability to engineer synthetic signalling pathways in the cell. (wordpress.com)
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene was originally discovered and cloned by Dan Liebermann and Barbara Hoffman in mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the selected antibiotic is added to the agar, only bacterial cells containing the gene insert conferring resistance will be able to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results showed that there are special proteins (lectins) present on the zeospheres of the fungi which recognize specific sugar moieties upon the algal cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA is injected into cells, whose "inner machinery" uses the DNA to synthesize the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these proteins are recognised as foreign, when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • This, therefore, is especially pertinent when altering the genetic structure of an organism. (macalester.edu)
  • The genetic information also allows the organism to maintain its identity, ultimately distinguishing between what becomes a whale, elephant, mouse, etc. (unh.edu)
  • With the decreasing price of DNA sequencing and synthesis, the ease of genetic engineering (CRISPR, molecular cloning), and the increase in computational capacity, we have reached a stage where creating an engineered cell, and making it do what you want is a possibility. (wordpress.com)
  • The RK2 Plasmid is a broad-host-range plasmid belonging to the incP incompatibility group It is notable for its ability to replicate in a wide variety of single-celled organisms, which makes it suitable as a genetic engineering tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was the first in a series of development that have begun to make rats tractable as genetic research subjects, although they still lag behind mice, which lend themselves better to the embryonic stem cell techniques typically used for genetic manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pure culture may originate from a single cell or single organism, in which case the cells are genetic clones of one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • Further to this HAP1 wild-type cells have been extensively characterized by whole genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis . (horizondiscovery.com)
  • This is how Craig Venter created the first synthetic cell, assembling chemically-synthesized oligos into DNA chunks that were recombined in yeast to create an entire synthetic genome that was transplanted into a recipient bacterial cell that took on characteristics defined by the synthetic genome. (wordpress.com)
  • cDNA
  • Multiple cloning sites are sometimes used to ensure that the fragments are inserted in all three possible reading frames so that the cDNA fragment is translated in the proper frame. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • After a single recombinant DNA molecule (composed of a vector plus an inserted DNA fragment) is introduced into a host cell, the inserted DNA can be replicated along with the vector, generating a large number of identical DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic scheme for this can be summarized as follows: Vector + DNA Fragment ↓ Recombinant DNA ↓ Replication of recombinant DNA within host cell ↓ Isolation, sequencing, and manipulation of purified DNA fragment There are numerous experimental variations to this scheme, but these steps are essential to DNA cloning in a laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Because Embryonic Stem (ES) cells are cultured from the embryoblast 4-5 days after fertilization, harvesting them is most often done from donated embryos from in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Among its related pathways are Regulation of retinoblastoma protein and Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers . (genecards.org)
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulysin is a protein present in cytotoxic granules of cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulysin is a member of the saposin-like protein (SAPLIP) family and is released from cytotoxic T cells upon antigen stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, the DNA may be encapsulated in protein to facilitate cell entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • One way of enhancing protein expression is by optimising the codon usage of pathogenic mRNAs for eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • In polarized epithelial cells, syntaxin 3 localizes to the apical plasma membrane and is involved in membrane fusion of apical trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • For example, epithelial cells face the outside world or lumen of an organ on one side, and the interstitial environment and basement membrane on the other. (rupress.org)
  • Epithelial cells generally contain at least two different plasma membrane syntaxins. (rupress.org)
  • The clear distinction between apical and basolateral trafficking pathways makes epithelial cells a good system in which to test the central prediction of the SNARE hypothesis on their contribution to the overall specificity of trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • eukaryotic cells
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • May also be involved in BCR (B-cell antigen receptor)-mediated signaling in B-cells and FCGR1 (high affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor I)-mediated signaling in myeloid cells. (uniprot.org)
  • somatic
  • A persistent question in developmental biology is how germ cell fate, with its characteristics of totipotency and immortality, is preserved in the context of somatic cell differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • Stem cell treatments are a type of cell therapy that introduce new cells into adult bodies for possible treatment of cancer, somatic cell nuclear transfer, diabetes, and other medical conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • germ cells
  • Morpholino knockdown of maternal Nanos1 resulted in a striking decrease in PGCs and a loss of germ cells from the gonads. (biologists.org)
  • pathways
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • In Xenopus , the germline is specified through the inheritance of germ plasm formed during oogenesis and asymmetrically segregated into the future germ cell lineage. (biologists.org)
  • This means that the parasite is hardly lost in a clone lineage and also survives inside the resting eggs of its host. (wikipedia.org)
  • respectively
  • Syntaxins 3 and 4 localize to the apical and basolateral plasma membranes, respectively, in virtually all epithelial cell types investigated to date. (rupress.org)
  • Two such mutants, PFF1cop254D and PFF1cop271C, increase the copy number of PFF1 in E. coli from approximately 39-40 to about 501 and 113 plasmids per cell, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • fate
  • Probably involved in the regulatory networks that define neural crest cell fate specification and determine mesoderm cell lineages in mammals. (genecards.org)
  • Senescence is not the inevitable fate of all organisms and can be delayed. (wikipedia.org)
  • consistent
  • Although organisms can seem extremely different based on their external appearance or perhaps the habitat where they live, the fundamentals remain consistent throughout, ultimately deeming the organism as living. (unh.edu)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The European Union has yet to issue consistent regulations with respect to stem cell research in member states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they allow organisms to drive desirable reactions that require energy that will not occur by themselves, by coupling them to spontaneous reactions that release energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The speed of metabolism, the metabolic rate, influences how much food an organism will require, and also affects how it is able to obtain that food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures
  • When large numbers of amebae (25,000+) were inoculated into Vero cell cultures, cytopathic effects (CPE) were noticed within 5 to 6 days. (ajtmh.org)
  • Microbial cultures are used to determine the type of organism, its abundance in the sample being tested, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbial culture collections focus on the acquisition, authentication, production, preservation, catalogueing and distribution of viable cultures of standard reference microorganisms, cell lines and other materials for research in microbial systematics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus or phage cultures require host cells in which the virus or phage multiply. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus cultures are obtained from their appropriate eukaryotic host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Live, attenuated vaccines, such as smallpox and polio vaccines, are able to induce killer T-cell (TC or CTL) responses, helper T-cell (TH) responses and antibody immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • phage
  • The use of a helper phage can be eliminated by using 'bacterial packaging cell line' technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • The human ortholog MYD88 seems to function similarly to mice, since the immunological phenotype of human cells deficient in MYD88 is similar to cells from MyD88 deficient mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • The CPE consisted of cell shrinkage, nuclear pycnosis, and discontinuity of cell sheet, and the cell culture was totally destroyed in 8 to 10 days. (ajtmh.org)
  • Human
  • Her son, the Sage of the Six Paths, was born with the ability to produce chakra by combining physical energy (身体エネルギー, shintai enerugī), drawn from the trillions of cells that make up the human body, and mental energy (精神エネルギー, seishin enerugī), gained through experience and meditation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutation in MYD88 at position 265 leading to a change from leucine to proline have been identified in many human lymphomas including ABC subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • In E. coli, multiple plasmid copies appear to cluster together, creating a few multiplasmid clusters in each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The copy number of RK2 is about 4-7 per cell in E. coli and 3 in P. aeruginosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescence (/sɪˈnɛsəns/) or biological aging (also spelled biological ageing) is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • These cells exhibit functional and structural asymmetry in their apical and basolateral plasma membranes that is essential to their function. (rupress.org)
  • Characteristics
  • At a later date the organism was identified as A. polyphaga on the basis of its morphologic characteristics, especially those of cysts. (ajtmh.org)
  • types
  • What types of organisms are capable of being harmed or benefiting not only from GMO technology but also in the general sense? (macalester.edu)
  • host
  • March 1982, pp. 1935-1939 J M Blatny, T Brautaset, C H Winther-Larsen, K Haugan and S Valla: "Construction and use of a versatile set of broad-host-range cloning and expression vectors based on the RK2 replicon", Appl. (wikipedia.org)
  • All stages of vegetative reproduction (merogony) are enclosed by a thick plasma membrane, which is in direct contact with the cytoplasma of the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • An important question is whether SNAREs, indeed, contribute to specificity of trafficking in living cells. (rupress.org)