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  • survive
  • Helminth eggs (or ova) are a good indicator organism to assess the safety of sanitation and wastewater reuse systems for resource recovery because they are the most environmentally resistant pathogens of all pathogens (viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths) and can in extreme cases survive for several years in soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Therefore, a number of techniques are employed by microbiologists when culturing anaerobic organisms, for example, handling the bacteria in a glovebox filled with nitrogen or the use of other specially sealed containers, or techniques such as injection of the bacteria into a dicot plant, which is an environment with limited oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain bacteria can be used as indicator organisms in particular situations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coliform bacteria selected as indicators of faecal contamination must not persist in the environment for long periods of time following efflux from the intestine, and their presence must be closely correlated with contamination by other faecal organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • In biology, an organism (from Greek: οργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila became one of the first, and for some time the most widely used, model organisms, and Eric Kandel wrote that Morgan's discoveries "helped transform biology into an experimental science. (wikipedia.org)
  • With Avida, digital organism research has begun to be accepted as a valid contribution to evolutionary biology by a growing number of evolutionary biologists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolutionary biology portal Artificial life Evolutionary computation Genetic algorithms Combinatorial optimization Cellular automaton List of digital organism simulators Evolution@Home Polyworld Aleph-Null, "Computer Recreations", Software: Practice and Experience, vol. 2, pp. 93-96, 1972 http://avida.devosoft.org/ O'Neill, B. (2003). (wikipedia.org)
  • The biology of digital organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, Kappa organism or Kappa particle refers to inheritable cytoplasmic symbionts, occurring in some strains of the ciliate Paramecium. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • While viruses sustain no independent metabolism and thus are usually not classified as organisms, they do have their own genes , and they do evolve by mechanisms similar to the evolutionary mechanisms of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This DNA is then transferred into an organism, giving it modified or novel genes. (princeton.edu)
  • :25 The process of selective breeding , in which organisms with desired traits (and thus with the desired genes ) are used to breed the next generation and organisms lacking the trait are not bred, is a precursor to the modern concept of genetic modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • :1 Various advancements in genetics allowed humans to directly alter the DNA and therefore genes of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This included genes from the toad Xenopus laevis in 1974, creating the first GMO expressing a gene from an organism from different kingdom . (wikipedia.org)
  • fermentation
  • Fermentative anaerobic organisms mostly use the lactic acid fermentation pathway: C6H12O6 + 2 ADP + 2 phosphate → 2 lactic acid + 2 ATP The energy released in this equation is approximately 150 kJ per mol, which is conserved in regenerating two ATP from ADP per glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the organism is using fermentation in an anaerobic environment, the addition of oxygen will cause facultative anaerobes to suspend fermentation and begin using oxygen for respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasites
  • This controversy is problematic because some cellular organisms are also incapable of independent survival (but are capable of independent metabolism and procreation) and live as obligatory intracellular parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • fossil record
  • Since the resolution of the fossil record is low, pioneer organisms are often identified as those that lived within hundreds, thousands, or a million years of the extinction event. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of hard parts in Soft-bodied organisms makes them extremely rare in the fossil record. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sizes
  • The heaviest soft-bodied organisms are likely the giant squids, with maximum weight estimated at 275 kilograms (606 lb) for females, while arctic lion's mane jellyfish mat reach comparable sizes. (wikipedia.org)
  • beneficial
  • It is a loose concept, as an organism can be a pest in one setting but beneficial, domesticated or acceptable in another. (wikipedia.org)
  • The distinction between beneficial and pest is arbitrary, subjectively determined by examining the effect of a particular organism in a specific growing situation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • A membrane would then form around each nucleus (and the cellular space and organelles occupied in the space), thereby resulting in a group of connected cells in one organism (this mechanism is observable in Drosophila ). (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • Citing the reduction or elimination of various organisms as a side effect of agrichemical-based farming, some argue that critical damage is being done to the ecosystem, to the point where conventional agriculture is unsustainable. (wikipedia.org)
  • thought
  • Hence, the "health" of the social organism can be thought of as a function of the interaction of culture, politics and rights, and economics, which in theory can be studied, modeled, and analyzed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The longest animal on record is also thought to be a soft-bodied organism, a 55 metres (180 ft) long thread-like bootlace worm, Lineus longissimus found on a Scottish beach 1864. (wikipedia.org)
  • grow
  • Kingella denitrificans All of these organisms are part of the normal oropharyngeal flora, which grow slowly (up to 14 days), prefer a carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere, and share an enhanced capacity to produce endocardial infections, especially in young children. (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • Model organisms are in vivo models and are widely used to research human disease when human experimentation would be unfeasible or unethical. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] Studying model organisms can be informative, but care must be taken when extrapolating from one organism to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] In researching human disease, model organisms allow for better understanding the disease process without the added risk of harming an actual human. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mouse has since been used extensively as a model organism and is associated with many important biological discoveries of the 20th and 21st centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent research in model organisms led to further medical advances, such as Frederick Banting's research in dogs, which determined that the isolates of pancreatic secretion could be used to treat dogs with diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern general anaesthetics, such as halothane and related compounds, were also developed through studies on model organisms, and are necessary for modern, complex surgical operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The model or concept of society as an organism is traced by Maclay from Aristotle via a number of thinkers including Comte. (wikipedia.org)
  • Model organism databases (MODs) are biological databases dedicated to the provision of in-depth biological data for intensively studied model organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • Organisms are complex chemical systems, organized in ways that promote reproduction and some measure of sustainability or survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • live
  • Biopesticides that are biological controls, according to APHIS, would be any registered pesticide used to control a plant pest, weed or plant disease for which the active ingredient is a live microbial organism, including the metabolites of that organisms. (usda.gov)
  • Although some of these organisms live in colonies, they don't exhibit specialization. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are collectively known as infauna, as opposed to epifauna - the benthic organisms which live on the surface of the sediment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, a variety of organisms live in and disturb the sediment. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • In a process known as cellular respiration, these organisms use oxygen to oxidize substrates (for example sugars and fats) and generate energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compensatory growth, known as catch-up growth and compensatory gain, is an accelerated growth of an organism following a period of slowed development, particularly as a result of nutrient deprivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • A pest is any living organism, whether animal, plant or fungus, which is invasive or troublesome to plants or animals, human or human concerns, livestock, or human structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HACEK organisms are a normal part of the human microbiota, living in the oral-pharyngeal region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steiner's Fundamental Social Law" of economic systems emerged during his work on social order: "Most of all, however, our times are suffering from the lack of any basic social understanding of how work can be incorporated into the social organism correctly, so that everything we do is truly performed for the sake of our fellow human beings. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Social Organism: A Short History of the Idea That a Human Society May Be Regarded As a Gigantic Living Creature. (wikipedia.org)
  • groups
  • In the 2002 book, Darwin's Cathedral, David Sloan Wilson applies his multilevel selection theory to social groups and proposes to think of society as an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • A superorganism is an organism consisting of many individuals working together as a single functional or social unit . (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • The study results could help wastewater-treatment-plant, water-resource, and wildlife managers design management practices that limit the impacts of biosolids application on streams and aquatic organisms. (usgs.gov)
  • Digital organisms are used as a tool to study the dynamics of Darwinian evolution, and to test or verify specific hypotheses or mathematical models of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • presence
  • For this reason, sanitation programs often test water for the presence of these organisms to ensure that drinking water systems are not contaminated with feces. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • Soft-bodied organisms are animals that lack skeletons, a group roughly corresponding to the group Vermes as proposed by Carl von Linné. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not being a true phylogenetic group, soft-bodied organism vary enormously in anatomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • The most common argument in support of viruses as living organisms is their ability to undergo evolution and replicate through self-assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual
  • Physica D 91 86-96 Misevic, Dusan & Ofria, Charles & Lenski, Richard E. Sexual reproduction reshapes the genetic architecture of digital organisms Proc Biol Sci. (wikipedia.org)
  • A juvenile is an individual organism that has not yet reached its adult form, sexual maturity or size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some organisms reach sexual maturity in a short metamorphosis, such as eclosion in many insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • life
  • An organism may be defined as an assembly of molecules functioning as a more or less stable whole that exhibits the properties of life . (wikipedia.org)
  • A pioneer organism-also called a disaster taxon-is an organism that populates a region after a (short-term) natural disaster, mass extinction, or any other event that kills off most life in that area. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • It is possible for high compensatory growth rates to result in overcompensation, where the organism exceeds normal weight and often has excessive fat deposition. (wikipedia.org)