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  • wavelength-opsin
  • We show here, through behavioral experiments, that the nymphalid butterfly Heliconius erato , although it expresses short and medium wavelength opsins and only one long wavelength opsin, discriminates colors in the long-wavelength range (590 nm, 620 nm and 640 nm), whereas another nymphalid, Vanessa atalanta , despite having color vision, is unable to do so. (biologists.org)
  • photopigments
  • Melanophore photosensitivity is reversibly activated by retinaldehydes ( 6 ) and has an action spectrum characteristic of opsin-like photopigments ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • While most opsin variants lead to normally functioning photopigments, certain variants that encode "toxic" sequences in exon three lead to serious eye diseases with symptoms that include cone dystrophy, diminished ERGs, color blindness, and pathologically high myopia. (washington.edu)
  • This review examines the diversity and sensitivity of opsin-based photopigments present in the skin and considers their putative functional roles in mediating animal behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • membrane
  • Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of wild type and QUAD opsins combined with continuum modeling revealed that the tryptophan substitutions lower the energetically unfavorable residual hydrophobic mismatch between TM4 and the membrane, reducing the drive of QUAD opsin to dimerize. (deepdyve.com)
  • mismatch between TM4 and the membrane, reducing the drive of QUAD opsin to dimerize. (deepdyve.com)
  • Combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations and molecular dynamics simulations of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) in the membrane matrix have been carried out to determine the factors that make significant contributions to the opsin shift. (semanticscholar.org)
  • mutations
  • A common exception to this pattern occurs when disabling mutations accumulate on the S-opsin gene ( OPN1SW ), resulting in M- or L-cone monochromatic vision, or colour blindness, a phenotype with several independent origins among scotopic-active mammals [ 9 - 13 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Several point mutations in green cone opsin have been reported to cause deuteranopia, but the structural details underlying the molecular mechanisms behind the malfunction of mutated opsins have not been clearly established. (upc.edu)
  • melanopsin
  • Postoji još jedan opsin koji je nađen u mrežnjači sisara, melanopsin , on učestvuje u cirkadijalnim ritmovima i refleksu zenica ali ne u formiranju slike. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have identified an opsin, melanopsin, in photosensitive dermal melanophores of Xenopus laevis . (pnas.org)
  • mammals
  • Some authors attribute degenerate opsins to the relaxation of natural selection under light-impoverished conditions, and view colour vision as a functionless anachronism for all nocturnal mammals [ 14 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • outer
  • In wild-type explant cultures, UV-opsin was restricted to the outer segments, whereas in those derived from Rpe65 −/− Rho −/− mice, opsin trafficking was impaired. (molvis.org)
  • Comparing the effects of different retinoids on their ability to promote UV-opsin trafficking to outer segments confirmed the critical role of agents that bind in the retinoid binding pocket. (molvis.org)
  • sensitivity
  • First, we examined GCAPs -/- mouse rods, which have ~5 times higher sensitivity than wildtype rods, in an effort to resolve the signal from individual opsins. (arvojournals.org)
  • assays
  • Ultraviolet (UV)-opsin trafficking was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis, while its messenger RNA expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR, and the interaction of retinoids with UV-opsin was probed in transducing-activation assays. (molvis.org)
  • Fluorescence-based activity assays indicated that QUAD opsin is a fully functional scramblase. (deepdyve.com)
  • residues
  • To test this possibility, we rationally engineered QUAD opsin by tryptophan substitution of four lipid-facing residues in transmembrane helix 4 (TM4) that is known to be important for dimerization. (deepdyve.com)
  • Transducin
  • RA was shown to interact with the UV-cone opsin, demonstrated by its ability to effect ligand-dependent activation of transducin by UV-cone opsin. (molvis.org)
  • The other mutant studied, R330Q, showed impaired functionality as measured by its reduced transducin activation ability when compared to wild-type green cone opsin. (upc.edu)
  • amino
  • Its deduced amino acid sequence shares greatest homology with cephalopod opsins. (pnas.org)
  • thesis
  • A comprehensive description of OPSIN, its algorithms and performance (as of mid 2012) is included in the PhD thesis (Lowe 2012) . (cam.ac.uk)
  • inactive
  • Our data suggest that, contrary to current beliefs, bleaching adaptation in rods is mediated by opsin that exists in equilibrium between predominantly inactive and intermittently Meta-II like states. (arvojournals.org)
  • vision
  • Hence, a detailed expression study at the cellular level seems necessary to clarify whether r- or c-type opsins, or both, are involved in onychophoran vision. (biologists.org)