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  • arterial
  • Several models of transient retinal ischemia have been reported and include techniques that increase intraocular pressure (IOP) to higher than the systolic arterial blood pressure 3 4 5 or ligate the optic nerve with the central retinal artery (CRA). (arvojournals.org)
  • We performed a prospective observational study to test whether purine levels in arterial blood might correlate with brain ischaemia. (springer.com)
  • We made real-time perioperative measurements, via microelectrode biosensors, of the purine levels in untreated arterial blood from 18 patients undergoing regional anaesthetic carotid endarterectomy. (springer.com)
  • To address this issue, we have used a novel biosensor technology to examine the purine levels in sequential arterial blood samples taken before, during and after the mild and reversible brain ischaemia that is imposed during the cross-clamp phase of awake carotid endarterectomy. (springer.com)
  • therefore, intra-arterial thrombolysis must be carried out within a strict time frame. (springeropen.com)
  • depolarization
  • [15,Although histologic outcome worsens as a function of the duration of ischemia, the effect of the duration of depolarization on outcome has not been studied closely. (asahq.org)
  • 13,14 ] It is hence reasonable to conclude that any intervention that delays the time to depolarization may be protective. (asahq.org)
  • suggested that there is a direct relation between cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMR O 2 ) and the time to membrane depolarization after circulatory arrest. (asahq.org)
  • 9 ] In an earlier experiment in our laboratory, animals anesthetized with isoflurane/nitrous oxide had a lower cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMR G ) and a longer time to terminal depolarization than did animals anesthetized with halothane/nitrous oxide. (asahq.org)
  • Stroke
  • Stroke treatment has been limited to a strategy of rapid revascularisation, initiated within 4.5 h of onset, by inducing thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA). (hindawi.com)
  • Although a few studies have examined whether purine levels in blood increase during stroke [ 20 ] and brain ischaemia [ 21 ], this has not been widely studied. (springer.com)
  • aortic
  • We determined the occurrence of time-of-the-day variation in perioperative myocardial injury in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement and its molecular mechanisms. (docme.ru)
  • cardiac
  • In one embodiment, the pacing system initiates a cardiac protection pacing sequence in response to the detection of the onset of an ischemic event, such that a pacing concurrent conditioning therapy is applied during the detected ischemic event. (google.com)
  • 7. The system of claim 6 , wherein the cardiac protection pacing sequence initiator is adapted to initiate the one or more cardiac protection pacing sequences in response to the detection of the onset of the ischemic event and one or more commands, and wherein the external system further comprises a user input device adapted to receive the one or more commands. (google.com)
  • The main pathophysiological process is renal tubular ischaemia, which is often multifactorial including sepsis, major surgery, low cardiac output, hypovolaemia and medication toxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • neovascularization
  • Actually, transplantation of large-EPCs into ischemic hindlimb enhanced neovascularization in hindlimb ischemia model, although small-EPCs or murine ECs did not, suggesting that large-EPC-CFUs might play an important role in restoration of ischemic diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We demonstrated, using a murine ischemia model, that the EPC-CFA could be a useful way to investigate the differentiation levels of murine EPCs, further providing a crucial clue that large-EPC-CFU status may be more functional or effective EPCs to promote neovascularization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is thus possible that neovascularization is not the single benefit of cell-based therapy, but in addition, EPCs, providing a rich source of secreted factors, also contribute at early time points to several cardioprotective processes by controlling inflammation and stimulating cell survival. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 In parallel, angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, signaling via the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase-AKT pathway, counteract I/R injury as early as 24 hours after ischemia, 8 well before functional neovascularization would occur. (ahajournals.org)
  • cellular
  • Although commonly thought of as a toxic gas, low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide have been shown to be beneficial in promoting tissue survival post-ischemia, and modulate a wide variety of cellular responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • EPCs
  • In support of this notion, many of the pioneering studies were conducted with xenotypic adult EPCs in immunocompromised hosts (eg, human EPCs in rats), for which application was performed before or immediately after the onset of ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • therefore
  • Imaging features can vary depending on the time course and etiology, and are therefore discussed separately in the articles above. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Edwards and Weston, 1993 ), as during ischemia, drugs that block this channel would have minimal effects on the nonischemic myocardium, and therefore should be free of the proarrhythmic effects noted for many antiarrhythmic drugs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • insult
  • This timed, controlled, ischaemic insult to the brain provides an ideal model in which to investigate how rapidly purines are released into the blood following the onset of ischaemia, and how quickly they return to baseline following resolution of the ischemic insult. (springer.com)
  • predict
  • The purpose of the study was to assess whether urinary NGAL (uNGAL) or plasma NGAL (pNGAL) can predict the occurrence of AKI at an earlier point of time than the conventional markers, that is creatinine and urine output as is used in RIFLE criteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus
  • Thus, providing additional endogenous NO is sufficient to protect nondiabetic hearts against ischemia-induced injury, but for a similar protection in diabetic hearts, effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species is also important. (aspetjournals.org)
  • results
  • Our results suggest that blood purines may be a sensitive real-time and rapidly produced indicator of brain ischaemia, even when there is no accompanying neurological obtundation. (springer.com)
  • injury
  • 6 This protocol fits the most often reported time course of I/R injury (ie, an immediate challenge by overwhelming inflammation). (ahajournals.org)
  • However, NGAL is not well validated in adult critical care practice because of indeterminate timing of injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • function
  • The lack of ATP during ischemia ceases function of the 3Na + -2K + ATPase, thereby exacerbating the intracellular Na + overload. (jci.org)