• Okadaic acid (OA) and its derivatives, the dinophysistoxins (DTX), are members of a group of molecules called polyketides. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3 total syntheses of okadaic acid have been achieved, along with many more formal syntheses and several total syntheses of the other dinophysistoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is an acute gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of bivalve mollusks that have accumulated okadaic acid (OA) or related dinophysistoxins through filter feeding. (cdc.gov)
  • Okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins (DTXs) are the main toxins responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) intoxications during harmful algal blooms (HABs). (fiu.edu)
  • Okadaic acid (OA) is a type of marine biotoxin produced by some species of dinoflagellates in marine environments . (bvsalud.org)
  • others interfere with metabolic processes on which the nervous system is especially dependent, and amino acid neurotoxins might even be incorporated into brain proteins with unknown functional outcomes. (mdpi.com)
  • Modulation of cytolytic T lymphocyte functions by an inhibitor of serine/threonine phosphatase, okadaic acid. (aai.org)
  • One of the primary causes of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, okadaic acid is a potent inhibitor of specific protein phosphatases and is known to have a variety of negative effects on cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, PP2A activity was reduced following mechanical load and treatments with the PP2A-inhibitor okadaic acid were able to mimic the effects of the intervention. (unideb.hu)
  • The toxins responsible for most shellfish poisonings are water-soluble, are heat and acid-stable, and are not inactivated by ordinary cooking methods. (medscape.com)
  • California sea lions can be poisoned by a toxin called domoic acid from blooms of the diatom (single-celled organism) Pseudo-nitzchia and experience neurologic effects, including seizures and unusual behavior. (cdc.gov)
  • Domoic acid (DA) is structurally similar to the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. (medscape.com)
  • Domoic acid has been associated with necrosis of the glutamate-rich hippocampus and amygdala in autopsied cases. (medscape.com)
  • Domoic acid is produced by the diatom Nitzschia pungens . (medscape.com)
  • Okadaic acid, C44H68O13, is a toxin produced by several species of dinoflagellates, and is known to accumulate in both marine sponges and shellfish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead you can starve some cancers by denying them the amino acid asparagine (Asn). (yeastgenome.org)
  • What makes the yeast enzyme potentially better is that it is much worse at hydrolyzing a second amino acid, glutamine , than are the bacterial versions. (yeastgenome.org)
  • One of the toxic culprits of DSP, dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), named for one of the organisms implicated in its production, Dinophysis fortii, was compared to and shown to be very chemically similar to okadaic acid several years later, and okadaic acid itself was implicated in DSP around the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because polyketide synthesis is similar to fatty acid synthesis, during chain extension the molecule may undergo reduction of the ketone, dehydration, and reduction of the olefin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Okadaic acid is formed from a starter unit of glycolate, found at carbons 37 and 38, and all subsequent carbons in the chain are derived from acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody-free and selective detection of okadaic acid using an affinity peptide-based indirect assay. (bvsalud.org)
  • Colorimetric immunoassays for the detection of okadaic acid-group toxins and tetrodotoxins are developed using self-assembled monolayers as building blocks. (urv.cat)
  • The immunoassays for the detection of okadaic acid are applied to the analysis of seawater samples for monitoring purposes, while the immunoassays for tetrodotoxins are used in the analysis of shellfish samples and human urine samples derived from a puffer fish poisoning incident. (urv.cat)
  • Dr. Crabb stated that studies in 1970s showed that ethanol itself can cause fatty liver by inhibition of fatty acid oxidation, and that stimulation of fatty acid synthesis induces lipogenic enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • Hepatotoxic compounds are comparatively large natural products and are characterised by their molecular structure which involves a specific arrangement of amino acids to form a ring-shaped compound (cyclic peptide) ⁽¹²⁾ . (bluegreentest.com.au)
  • Okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 (35-methylokadaic acid), and calyculin A are the okadaic acid class of non-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type tumor promoters, which do not bind to the phorbol ester receptors in cell membranes or activate protein kinase C in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Okadaic acid receptors, protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, are present in the particulate as well as cytosolic fractions of various mouse tissues. (nih.gov)
  • The apparent "activation" of protein kinases by the okadaic acid class tumor promoters, after their incubation with 32P-ATP, protein kinases, and protein phosphatases, was observed. (nih.gov)
  • This activation was caused by inhibition of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A by the okadaic acid class tumor promoters. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment of primary human fibroblasts and human keratinocytes with the okadaic acid class tumor promoters induced the hyperphosphorylation of a 60-kDa protein in nuclear and cytosolic fractions, due to the inhibition of protein phosphatases. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanisms of action of the okadaic acid class tumor promoters are discussed with emphasis on the inhibition of protein phosphatase activity. (nih.gov)
  • Since bile acids and their salts are toxic detergents for hepatocytes, they have to be eliminated efficiently. (nih.gov)
  • Okadaic acid (OA) is a type of marine biotoxin produced by some species of dinoflagellates in marine environments . (bvsalud.org)
  • Mechanisms of action of okadaic acid class tumor promoters on mouse skin. (nih.gov)
  • 2013. Developmental exposure to valproic acid alters the expression of microRNAs involved in neurodevelopment in zebrafish. (nih.gov)