EstimatesPLoS GeneticsPredictorMultivariateObtain the oddsLogistic modelsPosterior oddsPrevalence ratioEpidemiologicalCollapsibleApproximateProbabilitiesInformational odds ratioTraditional oddsConfidence intervalNonnegativeReferencesLikelihoodFavorVarianceRelative riskBinaryAnalysesRelationDifferencesRisk ratioCalculationProbabilityOccurrenceOutcomeHttpsDescribeExpressed in termsInterpretAssociationTermsIndicatorIncreasesDiseaseContrastModelTimesCase-contr

- If you request BRR variance estimation ( VARMETHOD=BRR ), PROC SURVEYFREQ estimates the variance of the odds ratio as described in the section Balanced Repeated Replication (BRR) . (sas.com)
- It consists of estimates of odds ratios and their confidence limits. (sas.com)
- Consider the following PROC GLIMMIX statements that fit a logistic model with one classification effect, one continuous variable, and their interaction (the ODDSRATIO option in the MODEL statement requests the "Odds Ratio Estimates" table). (sas.com)
- Several suboptions of the ODDSRATIO option in the MODEL statement are available to obtain customized odds ratio estimates. (sas.com)
- This obviously presents a problem for DTC companies because they must use odds ratio estimates to predict disease risk without considering the environment in which customers reside. (genomesunzipped.org)
- The size of the problem therefore really hinges on how much odds ratio estimates vary between different environments and the scientific community has, to date, put little effort into understanding gene-environment interaction. (genomesunzipped.org)
- For a yes or no predictor, the odds ratio estimates the ratio of the odds of the outcome being present when the predictor is present to the odds of the outcome when the predictor is absent. (ctspedia.org)
- A key advantage of IORs is that the Mantel-Haenszel adjusted ratio estimates are collapsible ( i.e. , the combined crude ratio will not change after adjusting for a variable that is not a confounder) [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Circles mark direct odds ratio estimates comparing higher hsCRP quartiles to the lowest quartile. (nih.gov)

- Somewhat reassuringly, a recent study published in PLoS Genetics showed that odds ratios at 19 Type II diabetes associated SNPs were consistent across European Americans, African Americans, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians. (genomesunzipped.org)

- This second approach can be applied to categorical predictors having any number of levels, but in the case of a binary (i.e., two-level) predictor, an attractive alternative is to measure their association with odds ratios. (r-bloggers.com)
- For GAM(M)s, odds ratio calculation is highly simplified with this package since it takes care of the multiple 'predict()' calls of the chosen predictor while holding other predictors constant. (fiocruz.br)
- Also, this package allows odds ratio calculation of percentage steps across the whole predictor distribution range for GAM(M)s. (fiocruz.br)

- Multivariate odds ratios of chronic kidney disease (subgroup analyses by age and sex). (zanran.com)

- This ratio is the odds ratio (OR) and can be computed following these steps: For a given individual that has "B" compute the odds that the same individual has "A" For a given individual that does not have "B" compute the odds that the same individual has "A" Divide the odds from step 1 by the odds from step 2 to obtain the odds ratio (OR). (wikipedia.org)

- Do you have any suggestions regarding how to respond to this comment, or do you have any statistics textbooks in your mind that recommend odds ratio as a standard approach reporting results from logistic models? (stata.com)

- The posterior odds are 1:19 * 2:1 = 2:19. (lesswrong.com)

- In my discipline (epidemiology) we have relied heavily on odds ratios simply out of habit and convenience (logistic regression) when our interest is almost never in the OR itself, but rather in the risk or prevalence ratio or difference. (stata.com)
- The case for using the prevalence ratio essentially reduces to the assertion that it is obviously the better measure whereas the odds ratio is "unintelligible," and that when a disease is common the prevalence ratio and the POR may differ substantially. (thefreedictionary.com)

- In epidemiological terms, the odds ratio is used as a point estimate of the relative risk in retrospective studies. (statsdirect.com)

- Adjusted traditional odds ratios (TORs) are not collapsible. (mdpi.com)

- Unfortunately, there is a recognised problem that odds ratios do not approximate well to the relative risk when the initial risk (that is, the prevalence of the outcome of interest) is high. (bmj.com)
- ratio of two odds, but as used in the analysis of data from a case control study, a simple calculation, also called the cross-products ratio, which yields an approximate value for the relative risk of the exposure that has been examined in a case control study. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Approximate confidence intervals are given for the odds ratios derived from the covariates. (statsdirect.com)

- My impression is that, although it is true that predicted probabilities might be easier to understand, odds ratios have been used extensively in research when we interpret results from logit models. (stata.com)
- Odds ratios are an alternate way of expressing probabilities, which simplifies the process of updating them with new evidence. (lesswrong.com)
- In clinical studies and many other settings, the parameter of greatest interest is often actually the RR, which is determined in a way that is similar to the one just described for the OR, except using probabilities instead of odds. (wikipedia.org)

- The informational odds ratio (IOR) measures the post-exposure odds divided by the pre-exposure odds ( i.e. , information gained after knowing exposure status). (mdpi.com)
- Efird, J.T. Computing Power and Sample Size for Informational Odds Ratio. (mdpi.com)
- A useful measure of association is the informational odds ratio (IOR) [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)

- The measure resembles the traditional odds ratio (TOR) ( i.e. (mdpi.com)

- Population attributable risk is presented as a percentage with a confidence interval when the odds ratio is greater than or equal to one ( Sahai and Kurshid, 1996 ). (statsdirect.com)
- A confidence interval (CI) for the odds ratio is calculated using an exact conditional likelihood method ( Martin and Austin, 1991 ). (statsdirect.com)
- We compute the confidence interval for the diagnostic odds ratio of this test as [9, (wikipedia.org)

- The value of the odds ratio can be any nonnegative number. (sas.com)
- Since all of the four numbers appearing in this ratio are nonnegative, it follows that the odds ratio is also nonnegative and can assume any value between 0 and positive infinity. (r-bloggers.com)

- I have a question regarding a reviewer's comment on my use of odds ratio in interpreting the results of a logistic regression, and would appreciate it very much if you can provide any insight or any references for responding to the comment. (stata.com)
- It helps to avoid false references of predictors and increments by specifying these parameters in a list instead of using 'exp(coef(model))' (standard approach of odds ratio calculation for GLMs) which just returns a plain numeric output. (fiocruz.br)

- The likelihood ratio of a beep is 1/2:1/4 = 2:1. (lesswrong.com)
- The odds ratio ((a/c)/(b/d)) looks at the likelihood of an outcome in relation to a characteristic factor. (statsdirect.com)

- The odds in favor of a particular disease occurring in an exposed group are divided by the odds in favor of its occurring in an unexposed group. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Among 10 European studies comparing 10 days of penicillin versus 10 days of cephalosporins in the bacterial eradication of GAS in a total of 1,656 pediatric patients with tonsillopharyngitis, the odds ratio was 4.27 in favor of cephalosporins. (thefreedictionary.com)

- Your effect size can come from the log of the odds-ratio, but the variance will be determined by the actual proportions involved in calculating the OR. (stata.com)
- Traditional meta-analytic techniques such as inverse-variance weighting can be used to combine log diagnostic odds ratios computed from a number of data sources to produce an overall diagnostic odds ratio for the test in question. (wikipedia.org)

- Odds ratios are hard to comprehend directly and are usually interpreted as being equivalent to the relative risk. (bmj.com)
- For example: "The odds ratio is approximately the same as the relative risk if the outcome of interest is rare. (bmj.com)
- However, serious divergence between the odds ratio and the relative risk occurs only with large effects on groups at high initial risk. (bmj.com)
- If the condition being studied is rare, the odds ratio is a close approximation to the relative risk. (thefreedictionary.com)
- See odds ratio and relative risk ratio (below). (thefreedictionary.com)
- PROC SURVEYFREQ constructs confidence limits for the relative risk by using the log transform, which is similar to the odds ratio computations described previously. (sas.com)
- Design Cross sectional study of all 260 abstracts in PubMed of articles published in 2003 that contained "relative risk" or "odds ratio" and reported results from a randomised trial, and random samples of 130 abstracts from cohort studies and 130 from case-control studies. (bmj.com)
- On 15 October 2004, I searched PubMed for all abstracts of articles published in 2003 that contained "relative risk" or "odds ratio" in any field. (bmj.com)

- The odds ratio may be viewed as an association measure between binary variables, and it is defined as follows. (r-bloggers.com)
- For simplicity, suppose x and y are two binary variables of interest and assume that they are coded so that they each take the values 0 or 1 - this assumption is easily relaxed, as discussed below, but it simplifies the basic description of the odds ratio. (r-bloggers.com)
- Further, if x and y are two statistically independent binary random variables, it can be shown that the odds ratio is equal to 1. (r-bloggers.com)
- In medical testing with binary classification, the diagnostic odds ratio is a measure of the effectiveness of a diagnostic test. (wikipedia.org)
- Sensitivity and specificity Binary classification Positive predictive value and negative predictive value Odds ratio Glas, Afina S. (wikipedia.org)
- Typically, a binary logistic regression analysis would give you more output than this, but today we will focus on the odds ratio. (statisticssolutions.com)

- Provides structured output (data frame) of all predictors and their corresponding odds ratios and confident intervals for further analyses. (fiocruz.br)

- Because of past help I have received on this list I have learned how to convert model-based predictions from logistic regression into risk ratios or differences using marginal standardization with bootstrapped confidence intervals. (stata.com)
- DIFF=FIRST computes differences from the first level, and DIFF=ALL computes odds ratios based on all pairwise differences. (sas.com)

- The most informative thing to compute would be the risk ratio, RR. (wikipedia.org)
- see Odds Ratio vs Risk Ratio . (ctspedia.org)

- Simplified odds ratio calculation of GAM(M)s & GLM(M)s. (fiocruz.br)

- a method of expressing probability, e.g. at odds of 3 to 2 this can be converted to conventional terminology by using each number as the numerator and the sum of them as the denominator, i.e. 3/5, 2/5 or 60% or 40% or 0.6, 0.4. (thefreedictionary.com)

- The odds ratio compares the occurrence of the outcome in the presence of a particular exposure, with the occurrence of the outcome in the absence of a particular exposure. (wikipedia.org)

- Epidemiology Cross-product ratio, exposure odds ratio overdispersion A measure of association in a case-control study which quantifies the relationship between an exposure and health outcome from a comparative study. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Diagnostic odds ratios less than one indicate that the test can be improved by simply inverting the outcome of the test - the test is in the wrong direction, while a diagnostic odds ratio of exactly one means that the test is equally likely to predict a positive outcome whatever the true condition - the test gives no information. (wikipedia.org)

- 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/739851/all/odds_ratio. (tabers.com)

- Likewise, the odds of someone with a score of 1 are inverted from there (1/2), or .5, to describe how much less likely they are to be eaten than someone with a score of 2. (statisticssolutions.com)

- The reviewer commented that all results are expressed in terms of odds ratios which makes it very difficult to assess the magnitude of the effect. (stata.com)

- Garth Rauscher UIC School of Public Health -----Original Message----- From: [email protected] [ mailto:[email protected] ] On Behalf Of Lachenbruch, Peter Sent: Friday, April 09, 2010 11:24 AM To: '[email protected]' Subject: RE: st: Odds ratio I almost agree - ORs are tough to interpret for non-Epidemiologists and Statisticians. (stata.com)
- It is below .05, telling us that it is significant, and we can safely interpret the odds ratio. (statisticssolutions.com)

- In genetic case-control association studies the OR typically represents the ratio of the odds of disease if allele A is carried compared to if allele B is carried. (genomesunzipped.org)
- In this post I will try to break down the concept of a single, fixed odds ratio for a disease association, and highlight a number of factors that can cause odds ratios to vary using examples from the scientific literature. (genomesunzipped.org)
- The odds ratio provides a simple quantitative association measure for these variables that allows us to make these comparisons directly. (r-bloggers.com)

- This odds ratio is interpreted in terms of each unit increase on the scale (i.e., going from 1 to 2, 2 to 3, etc. (statisticssolutions.com)

- The rationale for the diagnostic odds ratio is that it is a single indicator of test performance (like accuracy and Youden's J statistic) but which is independent of prevalence (unlike accuracy) and is presented as an odds ratio, which is familiar to medical practitioners. (wikipedia.org)

- The positive relationship means that as gender "increases," the odds of being eaten increases . (statisticssolutions.com)

- but then D E / ( D E + H E ) ≈ D E / H E , {\displaystyle D_{E}/(D_{E}+H_{E})\approx D_{E}/H_{E},} in other words, for the exposed population, the risk of developing the disease is approximately equal to the odds. (wikipedia.org)
- The odds of disease were lower by a factor of 0.35 in those taking the active drug compared to those on placebo. (ctspedia.org)
- It is defined as the ratio of the odds of the test being positive if the subject has a disease relative to the odds of the test being positive if the subject does not have the disease. (wikipedia.org)
- Multivariable-adjusted odds of chronic kidney disease (CKD) according to body mass index (kg/m2 ) in men. (zanran.com)

- Ghannoum found that risk factors for spread included infection with Trichophyton rubrum (six times the odds ratio ), infection with T. (thefreedictionary.com)

- Distributions of hsCRP and log 2 (hsCRP), and estimated odds ratios in a case-control study. (nih.gov)