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  • vitro evolution
  • We will chart the conceptual triangle surrounding in vitro evolution [the SELEX (for systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) methodology]: insights into the prebiotic earth, applied medical research, and novel regulatory elements and circuits in cells (identified through the genomic SELEX process). (pnas.org)
  • Most in vitro evolution studies involve a powerful but laborious process in which a population of molecules is first challenged to perform a biochemical task, segregated on the basis of whether or not the molecules performed the task, and then amplified to produce "progeny" molecules that resemble but are not identical to their parents. (scripps.edu)
  • Recently, we developed a marked enhancement of continuous in vitro evolution in which the process is carried out within a computer-controlled microfluidic chip. (scripps.edu)
  • We then used in vitro evolution to improve substantially the activity of the cross-replicating RNA enzymes. (scripps.edu)
  • enzymes
  • We continue both to advance the technology of directed molecular evolution and to seek novel applications for our evolved enzymes. (scripps.edu)
  • In a recently published article, we described the first example of "evolution on a chip," in which a population of RNA enzymes underwent 500 iterations of 10-fold exponential growth followed by 10-fold dilution, carried out during a period of 70 hours. (scripps.edu)
  • primordial
  • The results indicate that the chemical models for the emergence of primordial autocatalytic self-reproducing systems, of and by themselves, can also explain naturally the emergence of biological homochirality. (rsc.org)
  • crucial
  • Chemical communication is crucial for the maintenance of colony organization in eusocial insects and chemical signals are known to mediate important aspects of their social life, including the regulation of reproduction. (springer.com)
  • theory of evolut
  • Therefore, the theory of evolution is definitely refuted from the very beginning. (jesus-is-savior.com)
  • In the 5th post in Ken's recent thought-provoking series on genetics as metaphysics, he reminded us of some major 'paradigm shifts' in the history of science -- plate tectonics, relativity and the theory of evolution itself. (blogspot.com.br)
  • possibility
  • One possibility is that this occurred before the evolution of cells, when the lack of a typical cell membrane allowed unrestricted lateral gene transfer, and that the common ancestors of the three domains arose by fixation of specific subsets of genes. (primidi.com)
  • necessary
  • According to people like Mike Russell , and subsequently Bill Martin and Nick Lane , the vent provided a constant supply of fresh basic chemicals, and the necessary heat and energy to combine them into more complex organic ones. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Each droplet contains, on average, 1 starting RNA enzyme and the materials necessary for that enzyme to undergo continuous evolution. (scripps.edu)
  • complex
  • In a day and age where chemical and radiation exposures from industrial pollution are ubiquitous and virtually unavoidable, it behooves us all to find ways to minimize exposure to them as well as to reduce their complex toxicities. (collective-evolution.com)
  • different
  • The same phenomenon appears to have occurred in several different situations, particularly in the chemical evolution of the Earth and Solar System, through seismicity (rocky planets) and storms (gaseous planets). (springer.com)
  • conditions
  • Note: For a reversible flow of energy such as occurs under equilibrium conditions, the equality sign applies. (ldolphin.org)
  • One thing seems clear, chemosynthesis does not require a Cinderella planet like earth, but only an abundance of chemicals and a source of energy, either from external or internal conditions. (sciforums.com)
  • properties
  • The naturalist might argue that regardless of the fundamental properties of the universe, chemical evolution still had to "choose" phosphates over an alternative chemistry. (reasons.org)
  • industrial
  • Detection of the big four most commonly occurs in industrial applications such as oil/gas/petrochemical, chemical, utilities, steel, general manufacturing and the fire service. (ehstoday.com)
  • taken
  • The winners "have taken control of evolution and used it for purposes that bring the greatest benefit to humankind," the Nobel committee said. (phys.org)
  • energy
  • Be these mechanical or chemical, the first law of thermodynamics---the principle of the Conservation of Energy---tells us that the total energy of the universe or any isolated part of it will be the same after any such transformation as it was before. (ldolphin.org)
  • Q) Mechanical work and energy are interchangeable, i.e., energy may be converted into mechanical work as in a steam engine, or mechanical work can be converted into energy as in the heating of a cannon which occurs as its barrel is bored. (ldolphin.org)
  • If we think about it, we can also see that the entropy increase associated with such energy flow is proportional to the driving force for such energy flow to occur. (ldolphin.org)