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  • alkylation
  • 6-O-methylguanine is formed in DNA by alkylation of the oxygen atom of guanine, most often by N-nitroso compounds (NOC) and sometimes due to methylation by other compounds such as endogenous S-adenosyl methionine. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several types of damage to DNA due to endogenous cellular processes: oxidation of bases [e.g. 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG)] and generation of DNA strand interruptions from reactive oxygen species, alkylation of bases (usually methylation), such as formation of 7-methylguanosine, 1-methyladenine, 6-O-Methylguanine hydrolysis of bases, such as deamination, depurination, and depyrimidination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • 2003 ). Cells with these cell surface markers are shown to have elevated levels of pro-invasive genes required for metastasis, including interleukins such as IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and urokinase plasminogen activator (UPA) (Sheridan et al. (springer.com)
  • He also contributed to a deeper insight of the mutagenic and cytotoxic effect of UV light, ionizing radiation and chemical genotoxins, assessed the regulation of repair genes and showed that specific DNA repair functions can be induced following genotoxic stress, thus contributing to the cells' adaptation to these detrimental exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many genes that were initially shown to influence life span have turned out to be involved in DNA damage repair and protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twenty-two DNA repair genes with hypermethylated promoters, and reduced or absent expression, were found to occur among 17 types of cancer, as listed in two review articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Limpet attachment and monoalkylation do not prevent the separation of the two DNA strands of the double helix but do prevent vital DNA-processing enzymes from accessing the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common carcinogenic alteration, found in many cancers and in their adjacent field defects from which the cancers likely arose, is reduced expression of one or more DNA repair enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • methylate
  • Mutagens in the environment, in tobacco smoke, food, as well as endogenous metabolic products generate reactive electrophilic species that alkylate or specifically methylate DNA, generating 6-O-methylguanine (m6G). (wikipedia.org)
  • BRCA2
  • BRCA2 is a viable target for cancer therapy because BRCA2-deficient cells are hypersensitive to chemotherapeutic DNA-damaging agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • molecule
  • Both ends of the molecule can be attacked by DNA bases, producing a butylene crosslink between two different bases. (wikipedia.org)