Loading...
  • Cytokinesis
  • The cell is actually split in two in a process called cytokinesis, in which the cellular membrane is pinched in the middle like a balloon squeezed in the center. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cytokinesis then divides the rest of the cell, and two identical cells result. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A coenocyte (from Greek: κοινός (koinós) = "common" + κύτος (kýtos) = "box, i.e. cell") is a multinucleate cell which can result from multiple nuclear divisions without their accompanying cytokinesis, in contrast to a syncytium, which results from cellular aggregation followed by dissolution of the cell membranes inside the mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • undergo
  • In order for yeast cells to undergo homology directed repair there must be present in the same nucleus a second DNA molecule containing sequence homology with the region to be repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • The potential to undergo a parasexual cycle under laboratory conditions has been demonstrated in many species of filamentous fungi, including Fusarium monoliforme, Penicillium roqueforti (used in making blue cheeses), Verticillium dahliae, Verticillium alboatrum, Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides, Ustilago scabiosae, Magnaporthe grisea, Cladosporium fulvum, and the human pathogens Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Before cell division takes place, the entire genome (the genetic material) has been copied, and there are now two complete copies in the cell nucleus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In plant cells, three independent organelles - chloroplasts, mitochondria, and the nucleus - each contain their own genome. (frontiersin.org)
  • During latency, the KSHV genome persists as a multiple copy, extrachromosomal episome in the nucleus. (frontiersin.org)
  • In order to persist in proliferating tumor cells, the viral genome replicates once per cell cycle and then segregates to daughter cell nuclei. (frontiersin.org)
  • Like a sexual cycle, parasexuality gives the species the opportunity to recombine the genome and produce new genotypes in their offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • life cycles
  • Life cycles that include sexual reproduction involve alternating haploid (n) and diploid (2n) stages, i.e., a change of ploidy is involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some terms (haplobiont and diplobiont) used for the description of life cycles were proposed initially for algae by Nils Svedelius, and then became used for other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other terms (autogamy and gamontogamy) used in protist life cycles were introduced by Karl Gottlieb Grell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The description of the complex life cycles of various organisms contributed to the disproof of the ideas of spontaneous generation in the 1840s and 1850s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those cycles provide for somatic variation in the vegetative phase of their life cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few genera have life-cycles involving a secondary host, which may be a vertebrate, invertebrate or plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of different morphological forms appear in the life cycles of trypanosomatids, distinguished mainly by the position, length and the cell body attachment of the flagellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epimastigotes are a common form in the insect host and Crithidia and Blastocrithidia, both parasites of insects, exhibit this form during their life cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • Between 1876 and 1878 Oscar Hertwig published several studies on the fertilization of sea urchin eggs, showing that the nucleus of the sperm enters the oocyte and fuses with its nucleus. (bionity.com)
  • Therefore, the necessity of the sperm nucleus for fertilization was discussed for quite some time. (bionity.com)
  • Biology
  • In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 2009 Erich Nigg is Professor of Cell Biology and Director of the Biozentrum at the University of Basel, Switzerland. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fact has been used in certain synthetic biology applications, for example to create cell-derived fibers for an organically grown concrete. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene expression
  • Nuclear transport is of paramount importance to cell function, as movement through the pores is required for both gene expression and chromosomal maintenance. (bionity.com)
  • However, a retrograde signal mediating light-responsive gene expression may have been established alongside gene transfer, because essential light sensing and regulatory systems were originally incorporated into plant cells by the photosynthetic endosymbiont. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is involved in controlling both the sleep-wake cycle and circadian regulation of gene expression by promoting transcription in a negative feedback mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • possess
  • Fibroblasts - a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen and is involved in wound healing - that have been transformed by the polyomavirus possess higher tyrosine activity in the cellular matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • they possess two haploid nuclei per hyphal compartment. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mechanisms or mistakes may lead to a similar structure to a coenocyte, though bacteria do not possess nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • In Drosophila, condensin II subunits contribute to the dissolution of polytene chromosomes and the formation of chromosome territories in ovarian nurse cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such nuclei with incomplete multiples of the haploid number are termed aneuploid, as they do not have even chromosome number sets such as n or 2n. (wikipedia.org)
  • mycelium
  • Some filamentous fungi (Such as Glomeromycota, Chytridiomycota and Neocalligomastigomycota) may contain multiple nuclei in a coenocytic mycelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recombined haploid nuclei appear among vegetative cells, which differ genetically from those of the parent mycelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • division
  • Mitosis is the process of cellular division that produces identical daughter cells from one mother cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Franz Meyen was a strong opponent of this view having already described cells multiplying by division and believing that many cells would have no nuclei. (bionity.com)
  • The nucleus is designed to govern and control everything that happens within the entire cell, which includes the process of cell division. (reference.com)
  • To ensure the proper division of the cell, there are control mechanisms known as cell cycle checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell division prevents the cell from becoming too large. (slideserve.com)
  • The cell copies its DNA in preparation for cell division. (slideserve.com)
  • The cell prepares for the division of its nucleus. (slideserve.com)
  • Many insects, such as the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, lay eggs that initially develop as "syncytial" blastoderms, i.e. early on the embryos exhibit incomplete cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hypothesized that by regulating actin bundling, anillin increases the efficiency of actomyosin contractility during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The nucleus is the largest cellular organelle in animals. (bionity.com)
  • Cell size affects the ability of the cell to communicate instructions for cellular functions. (slideserve.com)
  • It has also been demonstrated that phosphorylation of a middle-T antigen on tyrosine is also associated with cell transformation, a change that is similar to cellular growth or reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The duration of G1 is highly variable, even among different cells of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some organisms, different "generations" of the species succeed each other during the life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different species produce coenocytes with different numbers of nuclei before the PEC eventually begins to subdivide, with some growing to contain thousands of nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000 Genus Zelonia Shaw, Camargo et Teixeira 2016 Some trypanosomatids only occupy a single host, while many others are heteroxenous: they live in more than one host species over their life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different species go through a range of different morphologies at different stages of the life cycle, most have at least two different morphologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kinetoplast is found closely associated with the basal body at the base of the flagellum and all species of trypanosomatid have a single nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • As it may be relevant for metastasis in a range of cancers, the involvement of LINC complexes in migration of nonneuronal cells via its interaction with the perinuclear actin cap will also be developed. (nih.gov)
  • In human tissue culture cells, the two condensin complexes are regulated differently during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian cells
  • In mammalian cells, the average diameter typically varies from 11 to 22 micrometers (μm) and occupies about 10% of the total volume. (bionity.com)
  • In mammalian cells, the average diameter of the nucleus is approximately 6 micrometres (µm), which occupies about 10% of the total cell volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • phase
  • A) Interkinetic nuclear migration consists of the basoapical migration of retinal progenitor cell nuclei (RPC, blue nuclei) in phase with the cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • What Type of Cell Enters the G0 Phase? (reference.com)
  • Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • G0 is a resting phase where the cell has left the cycle and has stopped dividing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle starts with this phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this phase, the biosynthetic activities of the cell, which are considerably slowed down during M phase, resume at a high rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In G1 phase, a cell has three options. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cladophora glomerata, Acetabularia) In stramenopiles: some brown algae (the Fucales, however, their life cycle can also be interpreted as strongly heteromorphic-diplohaplontic, with a highly reduced gametophyte phase, as in the flowering plants), some xanthophytes (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCNA was originally identified as an antigen that is expressed in the nuclei of cells during the DNA synthesis phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imaging of the nuclear distribution of PCNA (via antibody labeling) can be used to distinguish between early, mid and late S phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This partnership is found mainly in the S-phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • No expression of Daxx leads to malfunction of S phase and cells with two nuclei are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HDR mechanism can only be used by the cell when there is a homologue piece of DNA present in the nucleus, mostly in G2 and S phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Further, we showed that the differential RNR response to DNA damage correlated with variable Mec1 kinase activity in the cell cycle in single cells. (asm.org)
  • To be specific, Lyn, a type of kinase in the Src family that was identified in the nuclear matrix, appears to control the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • antigen
  • Antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) or monoclonal antibody termed Ki-67 can be used for grading of different neoplasms, e.g. astrocytoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polymerase is held onto the DNA strand by PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen). (wikipedia.org)
  • unlike
  • Though cyc is a clock gene and plays a role in setting and keeping rhythms, cyc is expressed constitutively (continuously) in Drosophila cells and is present in native Drosophila tissue culture cells, unlike clk, per, or tim. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike mammalian red blood cells, those of other vertebrates still contain nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circadian
  • Via drug repurposing, a team of researchers led by animal biologists at Nagoya University has discovered compounds that can either shorten or lengthen the circadian rhythm in human cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The researchers identified various hit compounds that can regulate the circadian rhythm in human cells, including a well-known anti-aging supplement that was able to reduce jet lag in mice. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Many frequent fliers who travel across time zones tend to suffer from jet lag, which is caused by a mismatch between external time cues (shifted day/night cycle) and their biological (circadian) clock. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The circadian clock in humans has an approximately 24-hour rhythm, and the circadian rhythm plays an important role in regulating sleep/wake cycles, hormone secretion and metabolism. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Almost all cells contain a circadian clock controlled by a central circadian pacemaker located in the hypothalamus of the brain. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The Cycle gene (cyc) is expressed in a variety of cell types in a circadian manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • PCNA is pivotal to the activation of these pathways and the choice as to which pathway is utilised by the cell. (wikipedia.org)