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  • central
  • Despite this pivotal position in the auditory pathway, details of the basic physiological information being carried by axons of these cells and their projections to more central auditory nuclei have not been fully explored. (kuleuven.be)
  • input
  • Bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) receive their principal excitatory input from the auditory nerve and are the primary source of excitatory input to more centrally located brainstem auditory nuclei. (kuleuven.be)
  • occupies
  • Forming a critical part of the anteroventral third ventricle and the midline of the lamina terminalis , the median preoptic nucleus occupies an anatomical position that allows it to play an important role in many aspects of homeostatic regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a nucleus which occupies a certain energy level (for example, the ground state ), each nucleon can be said to occupy a range of locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • receives
  • It receives input from the vestibular nuclei and contributes to vestibular neuronal activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus reuniens receives afferent input from a large number of structures, mainly from limbic and limbic-associated structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • innervate
  • The motor neurons of Onuf's nucleus innervate striated musculature ( rhabdosphincter muscle) which is controlled voluntarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus ambiguus contains the cell bodies of nerves that innervate the muscles of the soft palate, pharynx, and larynx which are strongly associated with speech and swallowing. (wikipedia.org)
  • ipsilateral
  • The nucleus ambiguus controls the motor innervation of ipsilateral muscles of the soft palate, pharynx, larynx and upper esophagus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cochlear nuclei have long been thought to receive input only from the ipsilateral ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Periolivary nuclei (PON) - Ipsilateral and contralateral stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • sends
  • The external formation of the nucleus ambiguus also sends bronchoconstrictor fibers to the bronchopulmonary system, which can produce reflexive decreases in pulmonary bronchial airflow. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothalamus
  • Nuclei of the Hypothalamus: The preoptic area is located in the anterior portion of the hypothalamus, superior to the optic chiasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothalamus is highly involved in maintaining homeostasis of the body, and the median preoptic nucleus is no exception, contributing to regulation of blood composition, body temperature , and non-REM sleep . (wikipedia.org)
  • The median preoptic nucleus is located in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Connectivity with other regions of the hypothalamus , such as the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) and with regions of the brain stem also allow the median preoptic nucleus to be involved in other aspects of homeostasis . (wikipedia.org)
  • The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • lesions
  • Lesions of nucleus ambiguus results in nasal speech, dysphagia, dysphonia, and deviation of the uvula toward the contralateral side. (wikipedia.org)
  • dense
  • The motoneurons in Onuf's nucleus contain a dense array of serotonin and norepinephrine receptors and transmitters and are activated by glutamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom , discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger-Marsden gold foil experiment . (wikipedia.org)
  • fibers
  • Use of the K-B staining method showed that Onuf's nucleus appears clear due to the presence of many vertically arranged unmyelinated fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammalian
  • Nuclei vary in size from about 3 µ m to 25 µ m in diameter, depending on cell type, and contain chromosome diploid numbers that range from 6 (Indian muntjac) to 92 (Anotomys leander , a rodent) for mammalian species. (springer.com)
  • Unlike mammalian red blood cells, those of other vertebrates still contain nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • One pathway originates in the median preoptic nucleus while the other originates in the dorsolateral preoptic area (DLPO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract
  • http://hyper.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/11/6/602 Role of the nucleus ambiguus in the regulation of heart rate and arterial pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/109685993/abstract Medical Neurosciences discuss the nucleus ambiguus. (wikipedia.org)
  • organization
  • A July 1884 New York Times article called her "the nucleus and center of the whole organization of crime in New York City. (dictionary.com)
  • in this way the tonotopic organization that is established in the cochlea is preserved in the cochlear nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • This tonotopic organization is preserved because only a few inner hair cells synapse on the dendrites of a nerve cell in the spiral ganglion, and the axon from that nerve cell synapses on only a very few dendrites in the cochlear nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Onuf's nucleus is sexually dimorphic , meaning that there are differences in Onuf's nucleus between males and females of the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staphylaea nucleus, the wrinkled cowry, is a species of sea snail, a cowry, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Cypraeidae, the cowries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conus nucleus is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supplanaxis nucleus, common name the black Atlantic planaxis, is a species of small sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Planaxidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rossiteria nucleus is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Trochidae, the top snails. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cassidula nucleus is a species of air-breathing marine snail, a pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Ellobiidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cassidula nucleus is a predominantly mangrove-associated species. (wikipedia.org)
  • anatomical
  • Anatomical studies using electron microscopy have shown that the morphology of the supraoptic nucleus is remarkably adaptable. (wikipedia.org)
  • bodies
  • The neurons in Onuf's nucleus are motoneurons, and like most motoneurons they are characterized by their mulipolarity and large Nissl bodies . (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many reasons for this: Some technical advantages of working on the supraoptic nucleus are that the cell bodies are relatively large, the cells make exceptionally large amounts of their secretory products, and the nucleus is relatively homogeneous and easy to separate from other brain regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound sub compartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of sub-nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • neutron
  • Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen containing a proton and neutron in its nucleus , while normal hydrogen has only a proton. (dictionary.com)
  • After the discovery of the neutron in 1932, models for a nucleus composed of protons and neutrons were quickly developed by Dmitri Ivanenko and Werner Heisenberg . (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • This small group of neural cells is located between S1 and S2 or S2 and S3 and although Onuf's nucleus is located primarily in S2, it can extend to the caudal end of the first sacral segment or to the middle part of the third sacral segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases characterized by disturbances in urination and defecation affect autonomic and Onuf's nucleus cells similarly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclei were first described by Brown in 1833 and were quickly recognized as a constant feature of animal and plant cells. (springer.com)
  • For example, during lactation there are large changes in the size and shape of the oxytocin neurons, in the numbers and types of synapses that these neurons receive, and in the structural relationships between neurons and glial cells in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • He observed a "lumen", the nucleus, in the red blood cells of salmon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown was studying orchids under microscope when he observed an opaque area, which he called the "areola" or "nucleus", in the cells of the flower's outer layer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1838, Matthias Schleiden proposed that the nucleus plays a role in generating cells, thus he introduced the name "cytoblast" (cell builder). (wikipedia.org)
  • Franz Meyen was a strong opponent of this view, having already described cells multiplying by division and believing that many cells would have no nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus is the largest cellular organelle in animal cells. (wikipedia.org)