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  • enzymology
  • In enzymology, a nucleotide diphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction a dinucleotide + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2 mononucleotides Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are dinucleotide and H2O, whereas its product is mononucleotide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a nicotinate-nucleotide adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + nicotinate ribonucleotide ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } diphosphate + deamido-NAD+ Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and nicotinate ribonucleotide, whereas its two products are diphosphate and deamido-NAD+. (wikipedia.org)
  • single nucleotide p
  • A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), a variation at a single site in DNA , is the most frequent type of variation in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A tag SNP is a representative single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP's) in a region of the genome with high linkage disequilibrium (the non-random association of alleles at two or more loci). (wikipedia.org)
  • analogs
  • Is anyone interested in trying some new fluorescent nucleotide analogs for fluorescence in situ hybridization, point mutation analysis or genome mapping? (bio.net)
  • This research along with others, which included various types of direct and non-direct labeling via: analogs, addition via enzymes, or other methods made labeling of nucleotides much safer for scientist to study DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • In the two families of nucleic acids, ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA or RNA codes for the structure of proteins synthesized in the cell. (britannica.com)
  • Gels with phosphodiesterase-stable ligand structures are available for affinity chromatography of cyclic nucleotide-binding proteins. (photonics.com)
  • NEFs are specific for the nucleotides they exchange (ADP or GDP, but not both) and are often specific to a single protein or class of proteins with which they interact. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Update and subclassification of the P2Y G protein-coupled nucleotide receptors: from molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology to therapy. (springer.com)
  • In The P2 Nucleotide Receptors, leading researchers from major laboratories around the world summarize our current knowledge of the molecular biology, the physiology, and the pharmacology of the P2 receptors. (springer.com)
  • Their authoritative contributions cover the major aspects of these receptors, describing the relationships between the physiological and pharmacological effects of ATP and other nucleotides and the various cloned P2 receptors, as well as providing an historical perspective and discussing current issues of nomenclature. (springer.com)
  • metabolism
  • Cyclic AMP , another nucleotide, is involved in regulating many aspects of cellular metabolism, such as the breakdown of glycogen. (britannica.com)
  • Nucleotides also play a central role in life-form metabolism at the fundamental, cellular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The components used in de novo nucleotide synthesis are derived from biosynthetic precursors of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and from ammonia and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normal metabolism of nucleotide sugars is very important. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleotide sugar metabolism is particularly well-studied in yeast, fungal pathogens, and bacterial pathogens, such as E. coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, since these molecules are required for the synthesis of glycoconjugates on the surfaces of these organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • The anabolism of oligosaccharides - and, hence, the role of nucleotide sugars - was not clear until the 1950s when Leloir and his coworkers found that the key enzymes in this process are the glycosyltransferases. (wikipedia.org)
  • These enzymes transfer a glycosyl group from a sugar nucleotide to an acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Found 286450 nucleotide sequences. (nih.gov)
  • Nucleotide diversity can be calculated by examining the DNA sequences directly, or may be estimated from molecular marker data, such as Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms may fall within coding sequences of genes, non-coding regions of genes, or in the intergenic regions (regions between genes). (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • ATP → ADP + Pi (Utilisation of ATP for Muscle contraction) 2 ADP → ATP + AMP (Catalysed by Adenylyl kinase/Myokinase) Purine nucleotide cycle occurs during strenuous exercise, fasting or starvation when ATP reservoirs run low. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycosyltransferases
  • The development of chemoenzymatic strategies to generate large libraries of non-native sugar nucleotides has enabled a process referred to as glycorandomization where these sugar nucleotide libraries serve as donors for permissive glycosyltransferases to afford differential glycosylation of a wide range of pharmaceuticals and complex natural product-based leads. (wikipedia.org)
  • cGMP
  • In addition, nucleotides participate in cell signaling (cGMP and cAMP), and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions (e.g. coenzyme A, FAD, FMN, NAD, and NADP+). (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • Humans express seven known NPP isoforms, some of which prefer nucleotide substrates, some of which prefer phospholipid substrates, and others of which prefer substrates that have not yet been determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • In any one strand, the chemical orientation (directionality) of the chain-joins runs from the 5'-end to the 3'-end (read: 5 prime-end to 3 prime-end)-referring to the five carbon sites on sugar molecules in adjacent nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • Since most glycosylation takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus, there are a large family of nucleotide sugar transporters that allow nucleotide sugars to move from the cytoplasm, where they are produced, into the organelles where they are consumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • diversity
  • One commonly used measure of nucleotide diversity was first introduced by Nei and Li in 1979. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arlequin3 software can be used for calculations of nucleotide diversity and a variety of other statistical tests for intra-population and inter-population analyses. (wikipedia.org)
  • N-nucleotides, or nontemplated nucleotides are believed to exist only to create diversity at V(D)J junctions (see V(D)J recombination) during lymphocyte development. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • One of them is cell damage: both necrotic and apoptotic cells release ATP and other nucleotides that thus constitute "danger signals" or DAMP (damage-associated molecular pattern) (Elliott et al. (springer.com)
  • base
  • Aminoallyl nucleotide is a nucleotide with a modified base containing an allylamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary amine on the aminoallyl nucleotide reacts with amino-reactive dyes such as a cyanine and patented dyes which contain a reactive leaving group, such as a succinimidyl ester (NHS).The amine groups directly attached to the ring of the base are not affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1%). For example, at a specific base position in the human genome, the C nucleotide may appear in most individuals, but in a minority of individuals, the position is occupied by an A. This means that there is an SNP at this specific position, and the two possible nucleotide variations - C or A - are said to be alleles for this position. (wikipedia.org)