• Activator for both CDC42 and RAC1 by directly interacting with these Rho GTPases and acting as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). (icr.ac.uk)
  • Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis in support of plant breeding" by Robert J. Henry, Peter C. Bundock et al. (edu.au)
  • In 2008, SLC17A9, the last identified member of the solute carrier 17 type I inorganic phosphate transporter family, was found to encode the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) that is responsible for the vesicular storage of ATP. (elsevier.com)
  • The salvaged bases and nucleosides can then be converted back into nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrary to common belief, the nucleotides are not synthesized as bases first then attached to a sugar. (wikiversity.org)
  • The purine nucleotides IMP and GMP are degraded via the corresponding nucleosides to the constituent bases hypoxanthine and guanine, respectively, and recycled at this level. (els.net)
  • Custom oligos are offered with standard deoxynucleotides, modified bases and 5' and 3'-modified nucleotides. (thermofisher.com)
  • Specifically defined" means those amino acids other than "Xaa" and those nucleotide bases other than "n" defined in accordance with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Handbook on Industrial Property Information and Documentation, Standard ST.25: Standard for the Presentation of Nucleotide and Amino Acid Sequence Listings in Patent Applications (1998), including Tables 1 through 6 in Appendix 2, herein incorporated by reference. (uspto.gov)
  • Modifications, e.g. , methylated bases, may be described as set forth in WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 2, but shall not be shown explicitly in the nucleotide sequence. (uspto.gov)
  • cAMP modifies cell function in all eukaryotic cells, principally through the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) , but also through cAMP-gated ion channels and guanine nucleotide exchange factors directly activated by cAMP. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Effect of loss of P2Y 2 receptor gene expression on nucleotide regulation of murine epithelial Cl − transport. (springer.com)
  • It seems to me such a database would be necessary to do a proper analysis, as multiple copies of a single gene would bias the nucleotide frequencies. (bio.net)
  • Intriguingly, a specific alteration in the DNA sequence near the FMR1 gene-a "single-nucleotide polymorphism" or SNP-has been linked to an increased risk of repeat expansion in some premutation carriers. (newswise.com)
  • A gene is a discrete sequence of DNA nucleotides, and genes are what make up our chromosomes . (exoticpetvet.net)
  • For this preclinical study published in the Annals of Neurology , University of Michigan researchers employed nucleotide-based gene silencing to target the SCA3 disease gene, ATXN3. (news-medical.net)
  • We have examined the accumulation of polyphosphorylated nucleotides in Bacillus subtilis in relation to the function of the rel gene. (asm.org)
  • A codon is a series of three nucleotides used to specify a specific an amino acid. (reference.com)
  • 3 nucleotides (called a codon) code for an amino acid. (biology-online.org)
  • 37 CFR 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications. (uspto.gov)
  • a) Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences as used in §§ 1.821 through 1.825 are interpreted to mean an unbranched sequence of four or more amino acids or an unbranched sequence of ten or more nucleotides. (uspto.gov)
  • b) Patent applications which contain disclosures of nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences, in accordance with the definition in paragraph (a) of this section, shall, with regard to the manner in which the nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences are presented and described, conform exclusively to the requirements of §§ 1.821 through 1.825 . (uspto.gov)
  • c) Patent applications which contain disclosures of nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences must contain, as a separate part of the disclosure, a paper copy disclosing the nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences and associated information using the symbols and format in accordance with the requirements of §§ 1.822 and 1.823 . (uspto.gov)
  • And yes, each step has a specific enzyme that takes a basic starting molecule (like the amino acid aspartate) and modifies it in steps, till it is a nucleotide (a nitrogenous base attached to a deoxyribose sugar, which is then phosphorylated three times). (biology-online.org)
  • Nucleic acids are polynucleotides-that is, long chainlike molecules composed of a series of nearly identical building blocks called nucleotides. (britannica.com)
  • The Gordon Research Seminar on Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases is a unique forum for graduate students, post-docs, and other scientists with comparable levels of experience to present and exchange novel data to the field. (grc.org)
  • This GRS will be held in conjunction with the "Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases" Gordon Research Conference (GRC). (grc.org)
  • In vivo, nucleotides can be synthesized de novo or recycled through salvage pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the added nucleotide is not incorporated, no light will be produced and the nucleotide will simply be washed away or degraded by the enzyme apyrase. (pnas.org)
  • A method for the selective determination of microbial cells, in a sample suspected of containing both microbial and non-microbial cells, is described which involves the selective release and enzymatic inactivation of non-microbial nucleotides, followed by the rapid and specific inhibition of the inactivating enzyme and the release and detection of microbial nucleotides in an appropriate assay, such as a bioluminescent assay. (google.com.au)
  • In previous studies, Zimmermann and colleagues have shown that stem cells in these regions express NTPDase2, an extracellular nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme (also called ecto-nucleotidase) that modulates cell communication by nucleotide receptors. (biologists.org)
  • We estimate that around 3% of human de novo SNVs are part of a multi-nucleotide mutation (MNM), with 558 (3.1%) of mutations positioned less than 20kb from another mutation in the same individual (median distance of 525bp). (nih.gov)
  • Reduced pyridine nucleotides are oxidatively catalyzed in weakly acidic solutions. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, we use 283 parent-offspring trios to estimate the rate of mutation for both single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and short length variants (indels) in humans and examine the mutation process. (nih.gov)
  • Pyrosequencing is a method used to sequence DNA by detecting the pyrophosphate (PPi) group that is generated when a nucleotide is incorporated into the growing DNA strand in polymerase reaction. (pnas.org)
  • These nucleotide analogues are modified with a reversible chemical moiety capping the 3′-OH group to temporarily terminate the polymerase reaction. (pnas.org)
  • In this approach, each of the four nucleotides is added sequentially with a mixture of enzymes and substrates in addition to the usual polymerase reaction components. (pnas.org)
  • ACH-3422 is a small-molecule, nucleotide prodrug inhibitor of HCV NS5B polymerase. (cnbc.com)
  • The TSRI chemists showed that the SFM4-3 polymerase can replicate azido-modified nucleotides with adequate fidelity and can exponentially amplify strands of this modified DNA using a common laboratory method, polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (innovations-report.com)
  • Finally, the model predicted a therapeutic strategy to deliver nucleotide receptor agonists to effectively rehydrate the ASL of CF airways. (nih.gov)
  • Given its role in disease, we know it is essential to ensure that your target is the right target, in order to translate the basic understanding of cyclic nucleotide signaling into therapeutic treatments. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Because RPS25 doesn't appear to be required for global RNA translation, the authors suggest it could be a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases caused by nucleotide repeats. (alzforum.org)
  • Furthermore, it will explore recent progress made in identification and development of both new and established therapeutic targets modulating cyclic nucleotide signalling. (grc.org)
  • Although best known as the structural units of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA , which store and transfer genetic information in organisms, nucleotides participate in nearly all biochemical processes. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Processes for synthesizing nucleotides and modified nucleotides using N.sub. (google.com)
  • http://www.google.com/patents/US5616700?utm_source=gb-gplus-share Patent US5616700 - Processes for synthesizing nucleotides and modified nucleotides using N.sub. (google.com)
  • Adenine nucleotides are components of three major coenzymes, NAD + , FAD, and CoA, organic molecules that assist in various biochemical reactions by serving as carriers. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • RNA molecules, for example, can contain as few as 75 nucleotides to more than five thousand nucleotides. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • While all of this sounds very technical, what you need to understand is that nucleotides are molecules that are essential to the creation of new DNA and RNA molecules which are then used by new cells of all kinds. (exoticpetvet.net)
  • This is important because nucleotides, either by themselves, or in combination with other molecules, are involved in almost all activities of the cell (and therefore, the body). (exoticpetvet.net)
  • In any one strand, the chemical orientation (directionality) of the chain-joins runs from the 5'-end to the 3'-end (read: 5 prime-end to 3 prime-end)-referring to the five carbon sites on sugar molecules in adjacent nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the highest pi value is only 0.11%, which is about one order of magnitude lower than those in Drosophila populations, the nucleotide diversity in humans is very low. (genetics.org)
  • The ubiquitous presence of nucleotides from viruses and bacteria to humans reflects a common base and unity among all living organisms despite the remarkable diversity of life. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Cloning and functional expression of a human uridine nucleotide receptor. (springer.com)
  • NEW HAVEN, Conn., Nov. 2, 2013 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Achillion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq:ACHN) today announced a poster presentation detailing the preclinical profile of ACH-3422, a uridine-analog nucleotide prodrug being advanced for the potential treatment of chronic hepatitis C viral infection (HCV). (cnbc.com)