Loading...
  • activity
  • After addition of MTSES the residual transport activity correlated linearly with the fraction of cysteine-less carrier present in the membranes, and so the two versions functioned independently of each other. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Again, the residual transport activity in the presence of MTSES depended linearly on the amount of cysteine-less carrier. (cam.ac.uk)
  • source
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • translocation
  • First, exposure of extracellular merozoites to a low [K + ] environment typical of blood plasma leads to a rise in cytosolic Ca 2+ via a phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent pathway, which triggers translocation of microneme proteins such as 175 kD erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA175) and apical merozoite antigen-1 (PfAMA1) to the merozoite surface . (prolekare.cz)
  • Following binding, and while the binding site is facing the same way, the carrier will capture or occlude (take in and retain) the substrate within its molecular structure and cause an internal translocation so that the opening in the protein now faces the other side of the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Arabidopsis thaliana contains about 50 different CML genes which leads to the question of what purpose these diverse ranges of proteins serve in the cellular function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene regulation by miRNA is widespread across many genomes - by some estimates more than 60% of human protein-coding genes are likely to be regulated by miRNA, though the quality of experimental evidence for miRNA-target interactions is often weak. (wikipedia.org)
  • SINEs, like tRNAs and many small-nuclear RNAs possess an internal promoter and thus are transcribed differently than most protein-coding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • It also may involve the formation or dissociation of protein quaternary structures or oligomeric complexes, and specific binding of ions, ligands, or regulatory lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian cardiomyocytes, VDAC2 promotes mitochondrial transport of calcium ions in order to power cardiac contractions. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • Here, we demonstrate that cAMP serves as a key regulator that controls the timely secretion of microneme proteins during invasion. (prolekare.cz)
  • A rise in cAMP activates protein kinase A (PKA), which regulates microneme secretion. (prolekare.cz)
  • Subsequently, binding of EBA175 and its homologs to their erythrocyte receptors triggers secretion of rhoptry proteins such as PfRH2b, Clag3.1 and PfTRAMP , . (prolekare.cz)
  • We demonstrate that exposure of merozoites to a low K + environment as found in blood plasma activates the bicarbonate-sensitive cytoplasmic adenylyl cyclase β (PfACβ) leading to a rise in cytosolic cAMP levels and activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which regulates microneme secretion. (prolekare.cz)
  • the newly created polypeptide can be stored inside the ER for future vesicle transport and secretion outside the cell, or immediately secreted. (wikipedia.org)
  • family proteins
  • The transport reaction catalyzed by the antiporters is: ATP (out) + ADP (in) ⇌ ATP (in) + ADP (out) The AAA family proteins are distantly related to members of the major facilitator superfamily, and are not related to the mitochondrial ATP/ADP exchangers of the mitochondrial carrier family which pump ATP out of mitochondria in accordance with the polarity of the mitochondrial membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory proteins
  • Perturbations of the spi1p GTPase system in fission yeast, caused by mutation or overexpression of several regulatory proteins, result in a unique terminal phenotype that includes condensed chromosomes, a wide medial septum, and a fragmented nuclear envelope. (genetics.org)
  • The loop region of the pri-miRNA stem-loop is also a recognition element for regulatory proteins, which may up- or down-regulate Microprocessor processing of the specific miRNAs they target. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • med1 encodes a homologue of the human Ran-binding protein, RanBP1, and has been renamed sbp1 ( s pi1- b inding p rotein). (genetics.org)
  • Open reading frame 1 (ORF 1) encodes a protein which binds to RNA and acts as a chaperone to facilitate and maintain the LINE protein-RNA complex structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Ethanol also increases the plasma concentrations of hypoxanthine and xanthine via the acceleration of adenine nucleotide degradation, and is a possible weak inhibitor of xanthine dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Metabolic enzymes, cytoskeleton-associated proteins, ion transporters, chaperonins, transcription factors and various proteins with unknown functions are some of the many diverse targets regulated by CaM in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum merozoites is a complex multi-step process that is mediated by specific molecular interactions between red cell surface receptors and parasite protein ligands , . (prolekare.cz)
  • Chlamydial development is punctuated by changes in protein-protein interactions on elementary body (EB) and reticulate body (RB) surfaces. (asmscience.org)
  • This facilitates the assembly of multi-protein complexes by increasing the probability of any appropriate protein-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins may be anchored to the bilayer as a result of hydrophobic interactions between the bilayer and exposed nonpolar residues at the surface of a protein, by specific non-covalent binding interactions with regulatory lipids , or through their attachment to covalently bound lipid anchors. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the interactions of the proteins Hsp70 and sunbit Tim44, ATPase domain is essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • these subunits come together before translation of mRNA into a protein to provide a location for translation to be carried out and a polypeptide to be produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • ABC2 exporters evolved by intragenic duplication of a 3 TMS precursor, and ABC3 exporters evolved from a 4 TMS precursor which duplicated either extragenicly to give two 4 TMS proteins, both required for transport function, or intragenicly to give 8 or 10 TMS proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The thermolability of nuclear protein import in tsBN2 cells is suppressed by microinjected Ran-GTP or Ran-GDP, but not by RanQ69L or RanT24N. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the present report, we confirm that RCC1 is also required for nuclear protein import in tsBN2 hamster cells in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Loss of RCC1 leads to suppression of nuclear protein import in living cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • When the ABC transport proteins are overexpressed in cancer cells, they can export anticancer drugs and render tumors resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Microprocessor complex is a protein complex involved in the early stages of processing microRNA (miRNA) in animal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasm
  • In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In gram-negative bacteria, exporters transport lipids and some polysaccharides from the cytoplasm to the periplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • GSP1 and GSP2, genetic suppressors of the prp20-1 mutant in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: GTP-binding proteins involved in the maintenance of nuclear organization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs/ABCCs) in cancer chemotherapy and genetic diseases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • encode
  • med2 and med3 encode novel fission yeast proteins that, based on our phenotypic analyses, are likely to identify additional regulators or effectors of the spi1p GTPase system. (genetics.org)
  • For this reason, short interspersed nuclear elements are believed to have co-evolved with long interspersed nuclear element (LINEs), as LINEs do in fact encode protein products which enable them to be reverse- transcribed and integrated back into the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • Without the presence of ATPase, carboxy-terminal segment is not able to bind to protein of Tim44. (wikipedia.org)
  • As mtHsp70 transmits the nucleotide state of the ATPase domain with alpha-helicies A and B, Tim44 interacts with the peptide binding domain to coordinate the protein bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • interact
  • GTPases are molecular switches that adopt different conformations and interact with different regulatory and effector proteins depending upon whether they are bound to GTP or to GDP. (genetics.org)
  • Nucleic
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • The linear sequence of amino acids that is used to make a protein is its primary/secondary/tertiary structure? (cram.com)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (nih.gov)
  • The length of aG strain was 11925nt, comprising a leader sequence of 58nt, nucleoprotein (N) gene of 1353nt, phosphoprotein (P) gene of 894 nt, matrix protein (M) gene of 609nt, glycoprotein (G) gene of 1575nt, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp,L) gene of 6384nt, and a trailer region of 70 nt. (biomedcentral.com)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • Within virions, the genomic RNAs of hantaviruses are thought to complex with the N protein to form helical nucleocapsids, the RNA component of which circularizes due to sequence complementarity between the 5' and 3' terminal sequences of genomic segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with other Bunyaviridae, each of the three segments has a consensus 3'-terminal nucleotide sequence (AUCAUCAUC), which is complementary to the 5' terminal sequence and is distinct from those of the other four genera in the family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequence, the NET transporter consists of 617 amino acids with 12 membrane-spanning domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a genetic variation in which a genome sequence is altered by a single nucleotide (A, T, C or G). NET proteins with an altered amino acid sequence (more specifically, a missense mutation) could potentially be associated with various diseases that involve abnormally high or low plasma levels of norepinephrine due to altered NET function. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • Lipid-binding protein that is able to promote the tubulation of the phosphatidic acid-containing membranes it preferentially binds. (uniprot.org)
  • The endogenous glucocorticoid hormone cortisol diffuses through the cell membrane into the cytoplasm and binds to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) resulting in release of the heat shock proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like VAPA, VAPB binds to proteins that contain a FFAT motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • In mammals (in contrast, for instance, to some functions in insects 1-4 ), ferritin is supposed to be a cellular means of storing iron, 5 not of transporting it, yet serum ferritin levels are widely measured as indicators of iron status. (rsc.org)
  • Taking a systems approach, we develop and summarise the view that "serum ferritin" actually originates from damaged cells (and thus reflects cellular damage), that it contains some iron but has lost or liberated most of its normal content, and that since the protein part of ferritin is assumed to be benign, that it is this (initially) free iron that correlates with and is causative of disease. (rsc.org)
  • At the cellular level, mutations can cause alterations in protein function and regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This in contrast to other ABC proteins, in which ATP-driven conformational changes fuel uphill substrate transport across cellular membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • Hypochlorous acid reacts with a wide variety of biomolecules, including DNA, RNA, fatty acid groups, cholesterol and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Serum ferritin" presents a paradox, as the iron storage protein ferritin is not synthesised in serum yet is to be found there. (rsc.org)
  • The protein in serum ferritin is considered benign, but it has lost ( i.e. dumped) most of its normal complement of iron which when unliganded is highly toxic. (rsc.org)
  • It is one of three transport proteins (along with transthyretin and serum albumin) responsible for carrying the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Researchers from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute reported that the mutation of CUX1 reduces the inhibitory effects of a biological inhibitor, PIK3IP1 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase interacting protein 1), resulted in higher activity of the growth promoting enzyme, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) which leads to tumor progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • concluded from their results that most organic chloramines decayed by internal rearrangement and that fewer available NH2 groups promoted attack on the peptide bond, resulting in cleavage of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Codon
  • One way of enhancing protein expression is by optimising the codon usage of pathogenic mRNAs for eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen bonds
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is uncommonly soluble and active within elevated temperature conditions such as 80 °C. Due to the kinetic energy induced by this temperature the weak hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions of common proteins become degraded and therefore coalesce and precipitate. (wikipedia.org)
  • retrograde
  • Required for retrograde early endosome (EE) transport from the hyphal tip. (uniprot.org)
  • CASP has been reported to be part of a complex with Golgin 84 that tethers COPI vesicles and is important for retrograde transport in the Golgi and between the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • By comparing these structures, we localized its N-terminal MBD within the cytoplasmic domains that use ATP hydrolysis to drive the transport cycle. (nih.gov)
  • This irreversible ATP binding and hydrolysis, drives the alternative exposure of the CFTR, ensuring a unidirectional transport of anions down an electrochemical gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annotation
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein. (uniprot.org)
  • fluid
  • The potential therapy that Davis is investigating was originally used in earlier research to block the generation of these nucleotides to prove the fluid clearance mechanism behind a different viral lung disease. (osu.edu)
  • The researchers then placed fluid containing protein into one lung of each mouse and tested the fluid 30 minutes later. (osu.edu)
  • The amount of protein left in the remaining fluid allowed the investigators to determine whether the infected lung was clearing fluid adequately. (osu.edu)
  • If you get a bacterial infection and bacteria are all over the lungs and cell surfaces, you release these nucleotides and generate fluid so you can cough up the bacteria and wash them out. (osu.edu)
  • Mutations of the CFTR gene affecting chloride ion channel function lead to dysregulation of epithelial fluid transport in the lung, pancreas and other organs, resulting in cystic fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Considerable interest in VAPB has arisen because mutations in this protein are associated with rare, familial forms of Motor Neurone Disease (also called Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Lou Gehrig's disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • The L RNA encodes the L protein, which functions as the viral transcriptase/replicase. (wikipedia.org)
  • These sequences appear to form panhandle structures which seem likely to play a role in replication and encapsidation facilitated by binding with the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each protomer consists of 4 polypeptides known as VP (viral protein) 1, 2, 3 and 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • A direct mechanism of action involves homodimerization of the receptor, translocation via active transport into the nucleus, and binding to specific DNA responsive elements activating gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • polyprotein
  • The polyprotein is organised as follows: L-1ABCD-2ABC-3ABCD with each letter representing a protein, however, there are variations to this layout. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. (nih.gov)
  • There is evidence that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the NET gene (SLC6A2) may be an underlying factor in some of these disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells expressing a mutant form of the CFTR protein are resistant to invasion by the Salmonella typhi bacterium, the agent of typhoid fever, and mice carrying a single copy of mutant CFTR are resistant to diarrhea caused by cholera toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytosol
  • The activated GR complex up-regulates the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the nucleus or represses the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins in the cytosol (by preventing the translocation of other transcription factors from the cytosol into the nucleus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, an issue arises in how to transport such compounds across the inner membrane and into the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Although proteins responsible for compaction of CNS and PNS myelin are well characterized, less is known about proteins mediating axon-glial cell interactions in either CNS or PNS. (jneurosci.org)
  • As its name suggests, DDB1 was initially implicated in the process of a specific type of DNA repair known as nucleotide excision repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • The norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • first noted that HClO is a sulfhydryl inhibitor that, in sufficient quantity, could completely inactivate proteins containing sulfhydryl groups. (wikipedia.org)