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  • strands
  • Figure 9.6 Nucleic Acid Hybridization Can Be Used to Locate Homologous Sequences perature is lowered and the pH is neutral, the two strands will anneal because of the base-pairing interactions of the complementary strands. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Two complementary strands from different sources will also anneal, but the process may then be called hybridization to reflect the fact that each strand originated from a different source to create a hybrid molecule. (alpfmedical.info)
  • A dense nucleic acid loading was achieved through a series of salt additions, in which positively charged counterions were used to reduce electrostatic repulsion between adjacent negatively charged DNA strands and thereby enable more efficient DNA packing onto the nanoparticle surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • One- and two-dimensional forms of nucleic acids (e.g., single strands, linear duplexes, and plasmids) are important biological machinery for the storage and transmission of genetic information (Fig. 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleic acid shell gives the conjugate unique, programmable chemical and biological recognition abilities that offer greater binding strengths and higher duplex stabilities compared to the same sequence of linear DNA, cooperative melting behavior with DNA strands of a complementary sequence, and enhanced cellular uptake without the use of transfection agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • microarray
  • Several approaches, such as microarray hybridization, have become extremely popular tools for specialists in biochemistry and biomedicine, while the potential of many other advantageous techniques seems to be underestimated. (indigo.ca)
  • gene
  • citation needed] Isozymes are usually the result of gene duplication, but can also arise from polyploidisation or nucleic acid hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unique arrangement and orientation of one-dimensional linear nucleic acids within this three-dimensional framework results in fundamentally new chemical, biological, and physical properties, which represent a paradigm shift in the use of nucleic acids for intracellular gene regulation, molecular diagnostics, and materials synthesis applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is part of the team which holds the United States patent for "Methods of detecting cystic fibrosis gene by nucleic acid hybridization" , filed in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] Alternatively, if the amino acid residue that is changed is in a relatively unimportant part of the enzyme (e.g., a long way from the active site), then the mutation may be selectively neutral and subject to genetic drift. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELISA
  • Generally, in the case of nucleic acid hybridization, monovalent salt concentration and temperature are controlled for hybridization and wash stringency, contrary to a traditional ELISA, where the salt concentration will usually be fixed for the binding and wash steps (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • Nucleic acid fragments have been obtained from the genome of mycobacteria, and applications of the nucleic acid fragments in the diagnosis of mycobacterial infections are described. (google.com)
  • 11. The method according to claim 1, wherein the non-radioactively labelled fragments are present in the hybridization fluid at a concentration of not less than 0.2 μg/ml. (google.com)
  • whereas
  • Immunocytochemistry is a practical procedure for rapid specific diagnosis of liver stored for months, whereas RNA-RNA hybridization is a sensitive technique which can be applied to material stored for years. (ajtmh.org)
  • Furthermore, DNA origami uses DNA hybridization interactions to realize a final structure, whereas SNAs and other forms of three-dimensional nucleic acids (structures templated with a triangular prism, rod, octahedra, or rhombic dodecadhedra-shaped nanoparticles) utilize the nanoparticle core to arrange the linear nucleic acid components into functional forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrophoresis
  • In particular, amino acid substitutions that change the electric charge of the enzyme (such as replacing aspartic acid with glutamic acid) are simple to identify by gel electrophoresis, and this forms the basis for the use of isozymes as molecular markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • For example, all double-stranded nucleic acids - whether dsDNA, dsRNA or RNA:DNA hybrids - have specific 'melting temperatures', which depend mainly upon their specific guanine+cytosine content, but also upon whether they are DNA, RNA, or a mixture (RNA:RNA hybrids have the highest melting temperatures, followed by DNA:RNA hybrids, then dsDNA), and upon the ionic strength of solution. (uct.ac.za)
  • This technology is used for analysis of nucleic acid hybridization, specific binding of DNA, and low-molecular weight compounds with proteins, and protein-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process of specific binding is called hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Target
  • c) detecting the probe hybridized to said target nucleic acid if present. (google.com)
  • The global standard library of rRNA sequences is constantly becoming larger and continuously being updated, and thus the possibility of a random hybridization event between a specifically-designed probe (based on complete and current data from a range of test organisms) and an undesired/unknown target organism cannot be easily dismissed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salt
  • nylon membranes (Hybond-N, GeneScreen) bind all nucleic acids under a wide range of salt concentrations, and irreversible or covalent attachment can be achieved by UV irradiation for 5 min or less, or by treatment with 0.4M NaOH. (uct.ac.za)
  • different
  • This polyvalency, along with the high density and degree of orientation described above, helps to explain why a three-dimensional nucleic acid structure fundamentally composed of linear, one-dimensional nucleic acids exhibits dramatically different properties than its lower-dimensional constituents (Fig. 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • available
  • Although Lie comments also had at the download Nucleic Acid of the action, there allow turned national available plays never from the evidence of file of standing future. (scoutconnection.com)
  • chemical
  • The inorganic nanoparticle core (in addition to gold, silver, iron oxide, silica, and semiconductor materials have also been used) serves two purposes: 1) it imparts upon the conjugate novel physical and chemical properties (e.g. plasmonic, catalytic, magnetic, luminescent), and 2) it acts as a scaffold for the assembly and orientation of nucleic acids into the dense arrangement that gives rise to many of their functional properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, the SNA structure can be synthesized independent of nucleic acid sequence and hybridization, instead relying upon robust chemical bond formation between nanoparticles and nucleic acid adsorbates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing
  • citation needed] DNA samples are hybridized to a primer immobilized on a flow cell for sequencing, so it is usually necessary to generate a nucleic acid with an end compatible for hybridization to those surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybridization to the flow cell is typically carried out at 55◦C for 1 hr.[citation needed] Generally, samples for sequencing are prepared in such a way that the poly(A) tail is longer than the oligo(dT)50 on the surface of the flow cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Integrated Archive of Short-Read and Array (TIARA) database contains personal genomic information obtained from next generation sequencing techniques and ultra-high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • However, due to the random noise inherited in the imaging and hybridization process, identifying statistically significant DNA copy number changes in aCGH data is challenging. (semanticscholar.org)
  • More particularly, this invention is directed to a process for preparing labeled single-stranded nucleic acids by use of an alkylating agent containing a label moiety, where the word label is intended to include moieties which may be detected both directly and indirectly. (google.com)
  • i.e. these algorithms satisfy some or all the design requirements for DNA oligonucleotides at the time of hybridization (which is the core of the DNA computing process) and hence do not suffer from the problems of self - hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
  • groups
  • Crick was not satisfied with this hypothesis given that the four bases of RNA are hydrophilic and that many amino acids prefer interactions with hydrophobic groups. (wikipedia.org)