• M. Joyeux and S. Buyukdagli, "Dynamical Model Based on Finite Stacking Enthalpies for Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous DNA Thermal Denaturation," Physical Review E, Vol. 72, No. 5, 2005, Article ID: 051902. (scirp.org)
  • A system is described for measuring thermal denaturation of nucleic acid fractions directly in polyacrylamide gels. (naver.com)
  • Subfraction I differed from Subfractions II and III and whole chromatin with respect to thermal denaturation of the DNA and histone composition (as determined by gel electrophoresis). (elsevier.com)
  • In situ hybridization (ISH) relies on the detection of complementary sequences of nucleic acids present in the tissue using labeled nucleic acid sequences (probes) specific for the infectious organism. (aasv.org)
  • Hybridization occurs between complementary purine and pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids. (aasv.org)
  • The hybridization of segments of nucleic acids is revealed by an enzymatic reaction or the color emission of a fluorochrome. (aasv.org)
  • These techniques include nucleic acid hybridization analysis, restriction enzyme analysis, genetic sequence analysis, and the separation and purification of nucleic acids and proteins (See, e.g. (google.ca)
  • More particularly, the invention relates to devices containing active electrodes especially adapted for electrophoretic transport of nucleic acids, their hybridization and analysis. (google.co.uk)
  • By placing a plurality of nucleic acid probes on a surface, and exposing the surface to a sample containing target nucleic acids, many hybridization reactions may be carried out on a sample at the same time, simultaneously generating hybridization data for several target nucleic acids (the reverse dot-blot technique). (google.com.au)
  • In order to detect, identify, or quantify nucleic acids, antibodies, antigens and the like, use has been made of their bioaffinity properties, i.e., their ability to specifically pair with their complements, in accordance with genetic hybridization or immunological coupling mechanisms. (google.com)
  • 1.1.6 Denaturation and hybridization. (nhbs.com)
  • In DNA hybridization, the target gene sequence is identified by a DNA probe that can form a double-stranded hybrid with its complementary nucleic acid with high efficiency and extremely high nucleic acid with high efficiency and extremely high specificity in the presence of a mixture of many different, non-complementary nucleic acids. (mdpi.com)
  • DNA probes (sometimes called nucleic acid probes or gene probes) are single-stranded oligonucleotides labeled with either radioactive or non-radioactive materials to provide detectable signals for DNA hybridization [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Proteins are very long strands of amino acids linked together in specific sequences. (bionity.com)
  • Using an all-atom energy function, CPD tries to identify amino acid sequences th. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Sequence composition of the Alba proteins.The amino-acid sequences of Alba1 (APE1832.1-APA1) and Alba2 (APE1823-APA2) from A. pernix was aligned with those of the homologous proteins from Sulfolobus shibitae Alba1 (P60849- SSA1) and S. solfataricus Alba2 (Q97ZF4-SSA2). (nih.gov)
  • Similar methods with similar drawbacks have also been used in the detection of nucleic sequences. (google.com)
  • Improvements to the in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a process of in vitro enzymatic amplification of specific nucleic acid sequences within the cells where they originate, can be achieved by changing the way that the enzymatic reaction is started. (google.es)
  • The present disclosure provides novel primers and method for the detection of specific nucleic acid sequences. (patents.com)
  • To test the potential of single-strand RNA denaturation as a new alternative to detect specific nucleic acid variations, sequences from viruses of the Totiviridae family were compared using a new in silico melting curve approach. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A phylogenetic tree based on RdRp amino acid sequences was constructed, and eight monophyletic groups were defined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nucleic acid sequences and methods for detecting HIV-1 nucleic acid (LTR and pol sequences) in biological samples by detecting amplified nucleic acids are disclosed. (google.es)
  • detecting the amplified product of LTR sequences using a labeled detection probe that hybridizes specifically with LTR sequence in the amplified product, thereby indicating presence of the HIV-1 nucleic acid in the biological sample. (google.es)
  • 2 . The method of claim 1 , wherein the contacting step uses a capture oligomer that hybridizes specifically to a target region in LTR sequences of HIV-1 nucleic acid complementary to SEQ ID NO:1 or complementary to LTR-specific sequence contained in SEQ ID NO:2. (google.es)
  • Circular dichroism studies of an oligodeoxyribonucleotide containing a hairpin loop made of a hexaethylene glyco chain: conformation and stability, Nucleic Acids Res. (patentgenius.com)
  • The stable dried reaction mixtures are useful in many recombinant DNA techniques, especially nucleic acid amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (patents.com)
  • Despite the emergence of new techniques to nucleic acids investigation such as next generation sequence and array chips, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and its variations still prevail in clinical laboratories. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protein denaturation is also a consequence of cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • they mediate damage to cell structures, lipid peroxidation, protein denaturation, nucleic acid and DNA damage. (scirp.org)
  • Examples of such applications may include the study of the thermodynamics of metabolism, biological redox reactions, double strand formation in nucleic acids, equilibrium and energetics of protein denaturation, membrane potential, potassium ion channels, ligand binding, buffers, and osmosis and dialysis. (ursinus.edu)
  • The NUCLEIC-CARD matrix is chemically treated to enable cell lysis and protein denaturation, immobilizing and preserving nucleic acids for long-term storage at room temperature. (thermofisher.com)
  • The NUCLEIC-CARD Collection Device system incorporates a redesigned DNA collection swab and collection chamber with the established chemically-treated NUCLEIC-CARD matrix for cell lysis and protein denaturation. (thermofisher.com)
  • Process of partial or total alteration of the native secondary, and/or tertiary, and/or quaternary structures of proteins or nucleic acids resulting in a loss of bioactivity . (wikipedia.org)
  • Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure , tertiary structure , and secondary structure which is present in their native state , by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base , a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform ), radiation or heat . (wikipedia.org)
  • Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose their tertiary structure and secondary structure by. (writework.com)
  • Samples may be any material containing proteins or nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Physico-chemical Properties of Nucleic Acids, Volume II basically deals with the structural studies on nucleic acids and other biopolymers. (elsevier.com)
  • Educate the students in basics or molecular biology, particularly in properties of nucleic acids and proteins. (vutbr.cz)
  • At the same time, he undertook light-scattering investigations of carefully prepared DNA and shocked the Protein/Nucleic Acid Gordon Conference of 1950 by reporting that these nucleic acid molecules had molecular weights of many million and a stiffness sufficiently great that they could not possibly be single chains but rather had to be multistranded (3). (asbmb.org)
  • And with nucleic acids, he investigated the effects of pH and especially temperature on the native properties of DNA, initiating the technique of thermal melting analysis of nucleic acid molecules and thereby contributing to an understanding of their thermodynamics and the conformational differences between duplex DNA and single-stranded RNA (5, 6). (asbmb.org)
  • The present invention provides methods for the amplification of nucleic acid molecules. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Until now, studies that attempt to develop molecular tools based on melting curves are restricted to denaturation of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nucleic acids are intrinsically highly flexible molecules. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Middle - the fraction of folded and functional enzyme decreases above its denaturation temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Denaturation can occur when proteins and nucleic acids are subjected to elevated temperature or to extremes of pH, or to nonphysiological concentrations of salt, organic solvents, urea, or other chemical agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invention relates to continuous flow systems, in particular thermocyclers for the automated and continuous cycling of fluid between a plurality of temperature zones in the amplification of nucleic acids. (patentgenius.com)
  • The low melting temperature allows for the recovery of undamaged nucleic acids below the denaturation temperature. (thomassci.com)
  • In the first step of PCR, the two strands of the DNA double helix are physically separated at a high temperature in a process called nucleic acid denaturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loss of detection of segments of nucleic acids can be related to fixation time and the length of the target nucleic acid sequence. (aasv.org)
  • f) subjecting said fixed cells and said first and said second subsets of PCR reagents in a moist environment to thermal cycling sufficient to amplify said target nucleic acid. (google.es)
  • g) detecting said amplified nucleic acid in a manner which locates it in the individual cells originally containing said target nucleic acid sequence. (google.es)
  • Each nucleic acid strand is a linear (or, in a few cases, circular), unbranched polymer consisting of a sugar-phosphate backbone with a nucleotide base (purine or pyrimidine) linked to each sugar residue. (aasv.org)
  • The genomic sequencing procedures are applicable to the analysis of genetic polymorphisms, DNA methylation at deoxycytidines, and nucleic acid-protein interactions at single nucleotide resolution. (harvard.edu)
  • 1. A dry reaction mixture composition comprising at least one nucleic acid amplification-related enzyme, nucleotide triphosphates, and a saccharide, wherein the composition is non-lyophilized. (patents.com)
  • 11. A method of preparing a dry reaction mixture composition, the method comprising drying a reaction mixture in aqueous form in the absence of lyophilization, wherein the reaction mixture in aqueous form comprises at least one nucleic acid amplification-related enzyme, nucleotide triphosphates, and a saccharide. (patents.com)
  • Here we report the design and synthesis of a 1,669-nucleotide, single-stranded DNA molecule that is readily amplified by polymerases and that, in the presence of five 40-mer synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, folds into an octahedron structure by a simple denaturation-renaturation procedure. (springernature.com)
  • Detection by Electron Microscopy of Photo-Induced Denaturation in DNA," Nucleic Acids Research 2 , 143-8. (ornl.gov)
  • The present invention generally relates to the detection of products, and preferably of biological products (known as "affins"), especially those with a high molecular weight, such as nucleic acids and biopolymers of a proteic nature, e.g. proteins, peptides and the like. (google.com)
  • In particularly preferred aspects, the methods and apparatuses of the invention are used in the detection of nucleic acids, e.g. (google.com)
  • and detection of pathogens in nucleic acid tests for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • To prevent denaturation of biopolymers, we developed a method to trap a polynucleotide on a substrate by hydrogen bonding using silica particles with surfaces modified by aminoalkyl chains ([A-AM silane]/SiO 2 ). (mdpi.com)
  • For example, enzymes lose their catalytic activity, because the substrates can no longer bind to the active site, and because amino acid residues involved in stabilizing substrates' transition states are no longer positioned to be able to do so. (bionity.com)
  • Typically nucleic acid concentration is high in cell cultures and simple tissue samples while the biological medium is low in potential inhibitory substances, such that end-point dilution or use of specially formulated enzymes maximizes efficacy of downstream applications without the need for multiple wash steps. (bioline.com)
  • Nucleic acids-processing enzymes. (vutbr.cz)
  • Inactivation of the enzymes that hydrolyze nucleic acids 3. (issuu.com)
  • For one, some of the enzymes used in molecular biology, like [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_polymerase DNA polymerases], have derived from investigating heat-stable enzymes. (kenyon.edu)
  • A protein is created by ribosomes that "read" mRNA that is encoded by codons in the gene and assemble the requisite amino acid combination from the genetic instruction, in a process known as translation . (bionity.com)
  • Van der Waals (induced dipole) interactions between nonpolar amino acid side chains. (bionity.com)
  • Changes in pH affect the chemistry of amino acid residues and can lead to denaturation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Protonation of the amino acid residues (when an acidic proton H + attaches to a lone pair of electrons on a nitrogen) changes whether or not they participate in hydrogen bonding, so a change in the pH can denature a protein. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The primary structure is the amino acid sequence. (writework.com)
  • Interactions of archaeal chromatin proteins Alba1 and Alba2 with nucleic acids. (nih.gov)
  • Changes in the fluorescence intensity of these complexes originating from interactions between the single-stranded nucleic acid and aromatic compounds were also evaluated. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemical properties, structure and interactions of nucleic acids and proteins. (vutbr.cz)
  • Chemical reactivity of nucleic acids, non-covalent interactions. (vutbr.cz)
  • Electrochemistry of nucleic acids, interactions with electrically charged surfaces. (vutbr.cz)
  • Nucleic acids-protein interactions. (vutbr.cz)
  • The formation of nucleic acid structures is driven by base pairing and stacking interactions between the hydrophobic bases. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • 3 Both strands of nucleic acid are linked by hydrogen bonds. (aasv.org)
  • 1.1.7 Orientation of nucleic acid strands. (nhbs.com)
  • Molecular biology comprises a wide variety of techniques for the analysis of nucleic acid and protein. (google.ca)
  • Most molecular biology techniques rely on high-quality nucleic acid starting material that is free from biological and environmental contaminants. (bioline.com)
  • Extraction of nucleic acid targets (DNA and RNA) is a basic method that is used in molecular biology. (springer.com)
  • More particularly, the molecular biological type analyses include various nucleic acid hybridizations reactions and associated biopolymer synthesis. (google.ca)
  • The FVU specimen was assayed with an immune based Chlamydia Rapid Test (CRT) and various nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) to establish C trachomatis infection. (bmj.com)
  • In quaternary structure denaturation, protein sub-units are dissociated and/or the spatial arrangement of protein subunits is disrupted. (bionity.com)
  • Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Chemical and/or physical methods are used for the initial disruption to homogenize sample matrix and break open cell walls, releasing nucleic acids along with other cellular components. (bioline.com)
  • Bioline offers a suite of specially formulated nucleic acid purification reagents to provide streamlined, sensitive and robust options for this routine, yet highly important step of your workflow. (bioline.com)
  • Isolation and purification of nucleic acids Disrupture of cell membrane 2. (issuu.com)
  • Primary structure , such as the sequence of amino acids held together by covalent peptide bonds , is not disrupted by denaturation. (bionity.com)
  • Afterwards, each DNA or RNA sequence was denatured in silico using the softwares MELTSIM and RNAheat that generate melting curves considering the denaturation of a double stranded DNA and single stranded RNA, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As with protein structure prediction methods, nucleic acid structure prediction attempts to determine the native, in vivo structure of a given nucleic acid sequence . (bioinformatics.org)
  • Double stranded nucleic acid is denatured by subjecting a solution thereof to a voltage applied between electrodes spaced by no more than 1.5 mm in a time not previously achievable in electrochemical denaturation. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to processes for the treatment of nucleic acid material in order to effect a complete or partial change from double-stranded form to single-stranded form and to processes of amplifying or detecting nucleic acids involving such denaturation processes. (google.com)
  • The single-stranded nucleic acids were trapped on the surface of the [A-AM silane]/SiO 2 by hydrogen bonding to form conjugated materials. (mdpi.com)
  • This suggests that the single-stranded nucleic acids conjugated with aminoalkyl chains on the surfaces of SiO 2 particles and the change in fluorescence intensity reflected the molecular interaction between AO and the nucleic-acid base in a polynucleotide. (mdpi.com)
  • Until now, the secondary structure of single-stranded nucleic acids has not been exploited to develop identification systems based on PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Grade: Biotechnology A standard melting/gelling agarose, suitable for routine nucleic acid analytical/preparative applications. (thomassci.com)
  • In recent years, nucleic acid analysis has become an important analytical tool in many fields, demanding high-quality DNA or RNA. (springer.com)
  • Denaturation involves the breaking of many of the weak linkages, or bonds ( e.g., hydrogen bonds), within a protein molecule that are responsible for the highly ordered structure of the protein in its natural (native) state. (britannica.com)
  • In nucleic acids, as in proteins, the highly directional nature of this hydrogen bonding is the key to secondary structure. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The rate of protein, nucleic acid denaturation and chemical reactions that destroy the viral capsid are increased at higher temperatures, thus viruses will survive best at low temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tolerance for mutations and chemical modifications in a siRNA, Nucleic Acids Research, (2003), 31(2):589-595. (patentgenius.com)
  • A preliminary examination of the dissociation of the complex was made and its physico-chemical behaviour was investigated in relation to that of its nueleic acid component. (bham.ac.uk)
  • The chemical properties of nucleic acid components are primary determinants in structure formation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • In many cases, nucleic acid structures are examined in vitro , under non-physiological conditions, such as after denaturation or chemical synthesis. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • A chemical burn occurs when living tissue is exposed to a corrosive substance such as a strong acid or base. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • Cross-links in DNA are measured by the return of fluorescence of dsDNA after heat denaturation at pH 12. (nih.gov)
  • Dissociation and denaturation of proteins (histone) 4. (issuu.com)
  • The nucleoprotein was highly aggregated in solution at low ionic strength, but at high ionic strength a weight-average molecular weight lower than that of nucleic acid itself provided additional evidence for the dissociation of the nucleoprotein. (bham.ac.uk)
  • A strong acid is an acid that ionizes completely in an aqueous solution by losing one proton, according to the equationFor sulfuric acid which is diprotic, the "strong acid" designation refers only to dissociation of the first protonMore precisely, the acid must be stronger in aqueous solution than. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • A common consequence of denaturation is loss of biological activity ( e.g., loss of the catalytic ability of an enzyme). (britannica.com)
  • 7. The reaction mixture of claim 1, wherein said at least one nucleic acid amplification-related enzyme is a thermostable polymerase selected from the group consisting of Thermus aquaticus Taq DNA polymerase, Thermus sp. (patents.com)
  • Kits comprising nucleic acid oligomers for amplifying HIV-1 nucleic acid present in a biological sample and detecting the amplified nucleic. (google.es)
  • Commercial nucleic acid extraction techniques largely forego the often time-consuming precipitation methods in favor of solid-phase extraction commonly in the form of spin-columns. (bioline.com)
  • Methods and systems for detecting allelic imbalance using nucleic acid sequencing are provided. (patents.com)
  • Methods of the nucleic acids studies. (vutbr.cz)
  • To date, many different ways have been developed to extract nucleic acid, such as column-based and solution-based methods. (springer.com)
  • Zimmermann A, L├╝thy J, Pauli U. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of nine different extraction methods for nucleic acids on soya bean food samples. (springer.com)
  • Zimmermann A, Luthy J, Pauli U. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of nine different extraction methods for nucleic acids on soya bean food samples. (springer.com)
  • Agarwal, R.K. and Perl, A. (1993) PCR amplification of highly GC-rich DNA template after denaturation by NaOH. (upstate.edu)
  • When a protein is denatured, the secondary and tertiary structures are altered but the peptide bonds between the amino acids are left intact. (bionity.com)
  • Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) comprise the genomic material of living structures. (aasv.org)
  • Having outlined the general principles of nucleic acid structures, we will now focus on how these principles influence the formation of specific structures found in DNA. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • In studying nucleic acid structures, many different experimental approaches can be adopted. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Nucleic acids within a cell are formed under very specific conditions and the structures that they adopt are influenced not only by the nature of their synthesis (by DNA or RNA polymerases), but by ancillary proteins that influence their folding. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Although denaturation can be irreversible, an example of reversible denaturing in proteins is the modern permanent wave technique for curling or straightening hair. (bionity.com)
  • The denaturation of many proteins, such as egg white, is irreversible. (britannica.com)
  • In secondary structure denaturation, proteins lose all regular repeating patterns such as alpha-helices and beta-pleated sheets , and adopt a random coil configuration. (bionity.com)
  • The secondary structure formed by a particular nucleic acid molecule influences their DNA melting profile. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Relative to deoxyribonucleic acids ( DNA 's), ribonucleic acids ( RNA 's) are short, and the single strand can fold back upon itself, forming the characteristic stem-loop secondary structure (e.g., loops, bulges and junctions). (bioinformatics.org)
  • Nucleic acid targets can be extracted from various materials for subsequent processes, for example, PCR test. (springer.com)
  • Structural variations and stabilising modifications of synthetic siRNAs in mammalian cells, Nucleic Acids Res. (patentgenius.com)
  • The principle of these new molecular tools is based on the comparison of melting profiles, after denaturation of a DNA double strand. (biomedcentral.com)
  • English: see Nucleic acid tertiary structure for d. (writework.com)
  • Nanotechnology in nucleic acids analysis. (vutbr.cz)
  • G. Slade, N. Ribeiro, E. Filho and J. Ruggiero, "Analysis of Lattice Size, Energy Density and Denaturation for a One-Dimensional DNA Model," World Journal of Mechanics , Vol. 2 No. 2, 2012, pp. 84-89. (scirp.org)
  • Denaturation is the major change in protein or nucleic acid structure by application of some external stress for example, treatment of proteins with strong acids or bases, high concentrations of inorganic salts or organic solvents (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), heat, which results in improper functioning of cell activity. (bionity.com)
  • Denaturation , in biology, process modifying the molecular structure of a protein . (britannica.com)
  • 1 Nucleic Acid Structure and Function. (nhbs.com)
  • 1.1 Structure of nucleic acids. (nhbs.com)
  • When this specific three-dimensional structure is disrupted, the protein loses its functionality and is said to have undergone denaturation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • G. B. Watson and F. H. Crick, "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids-A Structure for Deoxiribose Nucleic Acid," Nature, Vol. 171, 1953, pp. 737-738. (scirp.org)
  • Nucleoprotein solutions exhibited the features of nucleic acid devolving from its unique helical structure, indicating that this structure is retained by the nucleic acid within the complex. (bham.ac.uk)
  • We will conclude this section of the course with a consideration of denaturation and renaturation -- the forces involved in loss of a macromolecule's native structure (that is, its normal 3-dimensional structure), and how that structure, once lost, can be regained. (utah.edu)
  • For the determinants of nucleic acid structure, we do not see the importance of a buried hydrophobic core. (bioinformatics.org)
  • The present invention also provides a preservative method for synthetic polymer hydrogel permeation layers having copolymerized attachment sites for biomolecules of interest, such as nucleic acid probes. (google.com.au)
  • 9. A method in accordance with claim 1 wherein said first subset of PCR reagents consists of all PCR reagents except a nucleic acid polymerase. (google.es)
  • If the polymerase used was heat-susceptible, it would denature under the high temperatures of the denaturation step. (wikipedia.org)
  • A familiar example of heat-caused denaturation are the changes observed in the albumin protein of egg whites when they are cooked. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Spectrophotometric studies showed that the nucleoprotein was denatured by heat and by alkali in a similar manner to nucleic acid, although denaturation by heat was slightly retarded. (bham.ac.uk)