• The design and development of nucleic acid-based therapeutics for the treatment of diseases arising from genetic abnormalities has made significant progress over the past few years. (elsevier.com)
  • In this work, we propose a model for multi-omic data integration (i.e., genetic variations, gene expression, genome conformation, and epigenetic patterns), which exploits a multi-layer network approach to analyse, visualize, and obtain insights from such biological information, in order to use achieved results at a macroscopic level. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using a novel genetic selection, we have identified a series of synthetase mutants that selectively charge the amber suppresor tRNA with the C8 amino acid, alpha-aminocaprylic acid, and the photocaged amino acid, o-nitrobenzyl cysteine, allowing them to be inserted into proteins in yeast in response to the amber nonsense codon, TAG. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These conformations can modulate the expression of genetic information by altering the frequency of interaction between a distant regulatory element such as an enhancer, and the corresponding target gene promoter. (springer.com)
  • An example is the N-glycosylation site motif: Asn, followed by anything but Pro, followed by either Ser or Thr, followed by anything but Pro where the three-letter abbreviations are the conventional designations for amino acids (see genetic code). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this field, nucleic acids are used as non-biological engineering materials for nanotechnology rather than as the carriers of genetic information in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1956 Francis Crick described the flow of genetic information from DNA to a specific amino acid arrangement for making a protein as the central dogma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factors, which regulate gene expression, and polymerases, which catalyse replication, are composed of proteins, and the genetic material they interact with is composed of nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, base-pairing between transfer RNA (tRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) forms the basis for the molecular recognition events that result in the nucleotide sequence of mRNA becoming translated into the amino acid sequence of proteins via the genetic code. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the process of artificial engineering of nucleic acid ligands is highly interesting to biology and biotechnology, the notion of aptamers in the natural world had yet to be uncovered until 2002 when two groups led by Ronald Breaker and Evgeny Nudler discovered a nucleic acid-based genetic regulatory element (which was named riboswitch) that possesses similar molecular recognition properties to the artificially made aptamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 500 naturally occurring amino acids are known (though only 20 appear in the genetic code) and can be classified in many ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Twenty of the proteinogenic amino acids are encoded directly by triplet codons in the genetic code and are known as "standard" amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Codon-tRNA combinations not found in nature can also be used to "expand" the genetic code and form novel proteins known as alloproteins incorporating non-proteinogenic amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1961 and 1965, the relationship between the information contained in DNA and the structure of proteins was determined: there is a code, the genetic code, which creates a correspondence between the succession of nucleotides in the DNA sequence and a series of amino acids in proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nests are defined by the conformation of the main chain atoms, namely the phi,psi dihedral angles of the first two amino acids in the nest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic acids have a smaller percentage of hydrogen atoms, which are the atoms usually observed in NMR, and because nucleic acid double helices are stiff and roughly linear, they do not fold back on themselves to give "long-range" correlations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of acid, base or metal catalysts, coupled with conditions of increased temperature and pressure, can facilitate the exchange of non-exchangeable hydrogen atoms, so long as the substrate is robust to the conditions and reagents employed. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, Locked Nucleic Acids have many atoms whose distance varies very little in the sugar, which allows estimation of the glycosidic torsion angles, which allowed NMR to benchmark LNA molecular dynamics predictions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, a protein probe that could specifically bind to Z-conformation was used to map the Z-DNA distribution in the human genome. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • In particular, the integration of data about cancer mutations, gene functional annotations, genome conformation, epigenetic patterns, gene expression, and metabolic pathways in our multi-layer representation will allow a better interpretation of the mechanisms behind a complex disease such as cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • His laboratory has shown how GTP binding to the viral RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase ensures accurate initiation of replication of the viral genome (Nucleic Acids Research, 2014, 42:2758-2573). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thanks to this multi-layer approach, we focus on the interplay of chromatin conformation and cancer mutations in different pathways, such as metabolic processes, that are very important for tumor development. (frontiersin.org)
  • This suggests that specific interactions with chromatin binding factors are not required to maintain the global chromatin conformation observed in exponentially growing budding yeast cells. (rupress.org)
  • These simulations have been successful in corroborating that interactions between factors together with topological constraints may be responsible for driving chromatin conformation. (springer.com)
  • Further studies revealed that ZαADAR1 could bind to ribosomes and inhibit translation in both E. coli and mammalian systems in a Z-conformation dependent manner. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Mechanistically, these results suggest that 101F and motavizumab can bind to multiple conformations of the fusion glycoprotein and can neutralize late in the entry process. (rcsb.org)
  • This finding implied a degree of flexibility inherent in the Ub-PCNA complex that would allow it to transition into a conformation competent to bind the TLS polymerase. (pnas.org)
  • Coaxial stacking is the tendency of nucleic acid blunt ends to bind to each other, by interactions between the exposed bases. (wikipedia.org)
  • IMPDH has also been shown to bind nucleic acids, and this function can be impaired by mutations that are located in the subdomain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this conformation, the homopyrimidine strand in the duplex bends back to bind to the purine strand in a parallel fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in the human brain, glutamate (standard glutamic acid) and gamma-amino-butyric acid ("GABA", non-standard gamma-amino acid) are, respectively, the main excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we report a genetically encoded metabolic switch that enables dynamic regulation of fatty acids (FA) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli . (pnas.org)
  • It has been especially useful in probing the structure of natural RNA oligonucleotides, which tend to adopt complex conformations such as stem-loops and pseudoknots. (wikipedia.org)
  • When separating proteins or small nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, or oligonucleotides) the gel is usually composed of different concentrations of acrylamide and a cross-linker, producing different sized mesh networks of polyacrylamide. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fluorescently labeled nucleic acid having a hairpin structure between the fluorophore label and a point of attachment to a solid phase is useful as a probe to detect nucleic acid from a sample. (google.es)