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  • strands
  • One way to access sequence space at a higher density would be to make use of both strands of a duplex nucleic acid for the production of functional molecules. (springer.com)
  • The ability to generate functional nucleic acids encoded by both strands of a duplex has implications for the evolution of catalytic nucleic acids and the prospects for realizing maximum functionality from a given genetic sequence. (springer.com)
  • There are numerous exceptions, however-some viruses have genomes made of double-stranded RNA and other viruses have single-stranded DNA genomes, and, in some circumstances, nucleic acid structures with three or four strands can form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hybridization is the process of establishing a non-covalent, sequence-specific interaction between two or more complementary strands of nucleic acids into a single complex, which in the case of two strands is referred to as a duplex. (wikipedia.org)
  • A dense nucleic acid loading was achieved through a series of salt additions, in which positively charged counterions were used to reduce electrostatic repulsion between adjacent negatively charged DNA strands and thereby enable more efficient DNA packing onto the nanoparticle surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • One- and two-dimensional forms of nucleic acids (e.g., single strands, linear duplexes, and plasmids) are important biological machinery for the storage and transmission of genetic information (Fig. 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleic acid shell gives the conjugate unique, programmable chemical and biological recognition abilities that offer greater binding strengths and higher duplex stabilities compared to the same sequence of linear DNA, cooperative melting behavior with DNA strands of a complementary sequence, and enhanced cellular uptake without the use of transfection agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is necessary because there are many possible sequences of nucleic acid strands that will fold into a given secondary structure, but many of these sequences will have undesired additional interactions which must be avoided. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic acid design is the process by which, given a desired target structure or functionality, sequences are generated for nucleic acid strands which will self-assemble into that target structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • nanoparticles
  • An extensive experiment testing the immune effects of a broad group of lab-designed nucleic acid nanoparticles did not find a strong, uniform immune response, as had been predicted. (news-medical.net)
  • In contrast, the SNA structure can be synthesized independent of nucleic acid sequence and hybridization, instead relying upon robust chemical bond formation between nanoparticles and nucleic acid adsorbates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, DNA origami uses DNA hybridization interactions to realize a final structure, whereas SNAs and other forms of three-dimensional nucleic acids (structures templated with a triangular prism, rod, octahedra, or rhombic dodecadhedra-shaped nanoparticles) utilize the nanoparticle core to arrange the linear nucleic acid components into functional forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The only exception to this is the case of RNA viruses, such as the AIDS virus, in which RNA is the only nucleic acid present in the virus and the genetic material. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Was simple TNA the first nucleic acid on Earth to carry a genetic code? (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2011, at least six types of synthetic sugars have been shown to form nucleic acid backbones that can store and retrieve genetic information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the genetic information is still stored in the four canonical base pairs (unlike other nucleic acid analogues), natural DNA polymerases cannot read and duplicate this information. (wikipedia.org)
  • PNAs
  • described a trans-acting DNA-based amphiphatic delivery system for convenient delivery of poly A tailed uncharged nucleic acids (UNA) such as PNAs and morpholinos, so that several UNA's can be easily screened ex vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Nucleic acid design has similar goals to protein design: in both, the sequence of monomers is rationally designed to favor the desired folded or associated structure and to disfavor alternate structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • These creative approaches to visualizing DNA sequences have generally relied on the use of spatially distributed symbols and/or visually distinct shapes to encode lengthy nucleic acid sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleic acid design is the process of generating a set of nucleic acid base sequences that will associate into a desired conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • Samuel H. Wilson heads the DNA Repair and Nucleic Acid Enzymology Group and holds a secondary appointment in the NIEHS Epigenetics and Stem Cell Biology Laboratory . (nih.gov)
  • Nucleic acid structure is often divided into four different levels: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secondary structure is responsible for the shape that the nucleic acid assumes. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemistry
  • Bentham Science's seventh volume of Applications of NMR Spectroscopy, published by Bentham Science Publishers covers NMR methods in proteomics and metabolomics, and nucleic acid biochemistry. (news-medical.net)
  • duplexes
  • With cyclohexene nucleic acid, research has shown that CeNAs with stereochemistry similar to the D form can create stable duplexes with itself and RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) - defined as structures that are an arrangement of densely packed, highly oriented nucleic acids in a spherical geometry - were first introduced in 1996 by the Mirkin group at Northwestern University. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the greatest concerns in nucleic acid design is ensuring that the target structure has the lowest free energy (i.e. is the most thermodynamically favorable) whereas misformed structures have higher values of free energy and are thus unfavored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequence symmetry minimization is the oldest approach to nucleic acid design and was first used to design immobile versions of branched DNA structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • The chemical methods also enable the generation of altered nucleic acids that are not found in nature, for example peptide nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inorganic nanoparticle core (in addition to gold, silver, iron oxide, silica, and semiconductor materials have also been used) serves two purposes: 1) it imparts upon the conjugate novel physical and chemical properties (e.g. plasmonic, catalytic, magnetic, luminescent), and 2) it acts as a scaffold for the assembly and orientation of nucleic acids into the dense arrangement that gives rise to many of their functional properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • inorganic
  • Two decades of research on SNAs have revealed that they exhibit a synergistic combination of properties resulting from the inorganic core and the nucleic acid shell. (wikipedia.org)
  • compounds
  • Nucleic Acid Therapeutics is the leading journal in its field focusing on cutting-edge basic research, therapeutic applications, and drug development using nucleic acids or related compounds to alter gene expression. (liebertpub.com)
  • Nucleic acid analogues are compounds which are analogous (structurally similar) to naturally occurring RNA and DNA, used in medicine and in molecular biology research. (wikipedia.org)
  • diagnostic
  • This list includes nucleic acid-based companion diagnostic tests. (fda.gov)
  • Harvard University has granted a worldwide exclusive license to Sherlock Biosciences, Inc. to develop and commercialize technology from the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering to create a highly sensitive, nucleic acid-based diagnostic platform that can rapidly deliver accurate and inexpensive results for a vast range of needs in virtually any setting. (news-medical.net)