Loading...
  • genes
  • For a viable fetus to develop, the egg needs to reprogram the genome of the skin cell, shutting off genes specific for skin tissue and turning on genes needed for embryonic development, genes that are normally dormant in tissue-specific cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • With a series of microarray chips, Brambrink measured which genes were active and which were silent in both kinds of cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • In theory, the oocyte's cytoplasm would reprogram the transferred nucleus by silencing all the somatic cell genes and activating the embryonic ones. (sciencemag.org)
  • According to Axel, the cloning achievement eliminates one potential mechanism and narrows the possible ways in which a cell chooses one of thousands of receptor genes. (innovations-report.com)
  • In order to form and maintain the cumulus, various genes must be turned on in a carefully controlled order in exactly the right cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • In years to come, the unraveling of these gene pathways, where genes sequentially turn other genes on and off, will allow us to more fully understand how a single cell can grow into a complete adult animal. (elifesciences.org)
  • By molecular separation of transposons, from a cell nucleus, the cloning is enabled for genes which contain the transposons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning is the production of an offspring which represents the identical genes as its parent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning copies the DNA/genes of the parent and then creates a genetic duplicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of Dolly showed that genes in the nucleus of such a mature differentiated somatic cell are still capable of reverting to an embryonic totipotent state, creating a cell that can then go on to develop into any part of an animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's research goals at Harvard were to understand how nuclear transplantation works, and to make stem cells that carry genes for specific diseases such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), and Alzheimer's. (wikipedia.org)
  • world's
  • On November 2015, a Chinese biotech company Boyalife Group announced that it will partner with Hwang's laboratory, Sooam Biotech, to open the world's largest animal cloning factory in Tianjin as early as 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998 he applied to study for a Ph.D. in biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, arriving there shortly after Dolly the Sheep gained worldwide attention as the world's first cloned domestic animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Genome browser BLAST Expression Search and Clone Search (search by gene symbol, gene name, or Affymetrix id) Gene nomenclature guidelines Literature search: Textpresso- uses an algorithm to match your search to specific criteria or section of a paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobias Brambrink, a postdoctoral researcher in the Jaenisch lab, tried a different approach, comparing gene expression in cloned and fertilization-derived stem cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • If a gene is active in fertilized stem cells, it's also active in cloned stem cells, and at the same level of activity. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers chose olfactory neurons as the source of genetic material because previous research had suggested that these cells might undergo gene rearrangements during development. (innovations-report.com)
  • Those working with DNA refer to cloning a gene -- making many copies of it outside its normal environment. (libretexts.org)
  • A gene responsible for a particular phenotype can be cloned within a given species, when movement is accompanied by the presence of a mutant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dog was cloned using viral transfection of fibroblasts cells with an expresses the red fluorescent gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • the gene is expressed in many tissues and exhibits an intracellular vesicular pattern in Panc-1 cells (pancreatic cancer cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene, the first cloned calf in the world was born in 1997 at the American Breeders Service facilities in Deforest, Wisconsin, United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1999
  • Hwang first caught media attention in South Korea when he announced he successfully created a cloned dairy cow, Yeongrong-i in February 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang's next claim came only two months later in April 1999, when he announced the cloning of a Korean cow, Jin-i, also without providing any scientifically verifiable data. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Holstein heifer named Daisy was cloned by Dr. Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang using ear skin cells from a high-merit cow named Aspen at the University of Connecticut in 1999, followed by three additional clones, Amy, Betty, and Cathy in 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996
  • Dolly (5 July 1996 - 14 February 2003) was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dolly was born on 5 July 1996 and had three mothers: one provided the egg, another the DNA, and a third carried the cloned embryo to term. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem Cell Res
  • A major breakthrough has just been achieved in stem cell research. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • He was a professor of theriogenology and biotechnology at Seoul National University (dismissed on March 20, 2006) who became infamous for fabricating a series of experiments, which appeared in high-profile journals, in the field of stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 12, 2006, Hwang was charged with embezzlement and bioethics law violations after it emerged much of his stem cell research had been faked. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Korea Times reported on June 10, 2007, that Seoul National University fired him, and the South Korean government canceled his financial support and barred him from engaging in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2011, Hwang visited Libya as part of a $133 million project in the North African country to build a stem cell research center and transfer relevant technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2000, the NIH, under the administration of President Bill Clinton, issued "guidelines that allow federal funding of embryonic stem-cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • No federal law ever did ban stem cell research in the United States, but only placed restrictions on funding and use, under Congress's power to spend. (wikipedia.org)
  • In April 2004, 206 members of Congress, including many moderate Republicans, signed a letter urging President Bush to expand federal funding of embryonic stem cell research beyond what Bush had already supported. (wikipedia.org)
  • In May 2005, the House of Representatives voted 238-194 to loosen the limitations on federally funded embryonic stem-cell research - by allowing government-funded research on surplus frozen embryos from in vitro fertilization clinics to be used for stem cell research with the permission of donors - despite Bush's promise to veto if passed. (wikipedia.org)
  • On July 29, 2005, Senate Majority Leader William H. Frist (R-TN), announced that he too favored loosening restrictions on federal funding of embryonic stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • On July 18, 2006, the Senate passed three different bills concerning stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Senate passed the first bill, 63-37, which would have made it legal for the Federal government to spend Federal money on embryonic stem cell research that uses embryos left over from in vitro fertilization procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan began to explore both this process and also the reasons that cloned animals often appeared to develop abnormally, with organ defects and immunological problems - his first contact with stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the time, stem cell research in the United States was threatened by political pressure due to concerns over the ethics of human embryo research, and research such as this was at risk of potentially being made illegal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Federal funding for stem cell research had recently been removed, and part of his role was to obtain private funding to replace it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's work as of 2007[update] has succeeded in developing a technique of merging stem and skin cells that has obtained considerable public attention as a possible avenue to avoid moral objections regarding stem cell research in the context of serious illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • It suggests that ultimately, treatment of serious illnesses and understanding of stem cell development may be possible to obtain without recourse to human embryos - a highly desirable state of affairs politically, given the concurrent controversy over stem cell research in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's team reported that they had created cells similar to human embryonic stem cells without destroying embryos, a major step toward someday possibly defusing the central objection to stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • blastocysts
  • Researchers have tried to test the integrity of these surviving stem cells by transplanting them into fertilized blastocysts and then observing the overall health of the resulting animal. (eurekalert.org)
  • Previous reports have described the generation of bovine ES-like cells ( 4 ) and mouse ES cells from the ICMs of cloned blastocysts ( 5 - 7 ) and the development of cloned human embryos to the 8- to 10-cell stage ( 8 , 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Surprisingly, the researchers found that not only could clones be created from fully differentiated cells, but that the differentiated cells were actually the easiest to clone-about 35 percent of the fully differentiated cells developed into early stage embryos known as blastocysts, while only four percent of stem cells did. (seedmagazine.com)
  • olfactory neuron
  • In doing their experiments, the researchers were seeking to determine whether a single mature olfactory neuron, when introduced into an egg, or oocyte, depleted of its nucleus, could revert to an undifferentiated state in which it could give rise to an adult mouse possessing the full range of olfactory receptors. (innovations-report.com)
  • Dolly
  • As for the mystery surrounding Dolly, Ian Wilmut, the embryologist who supervised the sheep cloning project, said the new findings don't indicate whether the original udder cell was a stem cell or an already differentiated cell. (seedmagazine.com)
  • Dolly was cloned by Keith Campbell, Ian Wilmut and colleagues at the Roslin Institute, part of the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, and the biotechnology company PPL Therapeutics, based near Edinburgh. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell used as the donor for the cloning of Dolly was taken from a mammary gland, and the production of a healthy clone therefore proved that a cell taken from a specific part of the body could recreate a whole individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dolly was the first clone produced from a cell taken from an adult mammal. (wikipedia.org)
  • After cloning was successfully demonstrated through the production of Dolly, many other large mammals were cloned, including pigs, deer, horses and bulls. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • In 1989, he was a founding member of the Wellcome/CRC Institute for Cell Biology and Cancer (later Wellcome/CR UK) in Cambridge, and was its Chair until 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001 researchers at Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States, reported that 24 successfully cloned Holsteins had been monitored from birth to the age of four. (wikipedia.org)
  • A purebred Hereford calf clone named Chloe was born in 2001 at Kansas State University's purebred research unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Millie and Emma were two female Jersey cows cloned at the University of Tennessee in 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, Brazil cloned their first heifer, Vitória. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2001, George W. Bush requested a review of the NIH's guidelines, and after a policy discussion within his circle of supporters, implemented a policy in August of that year to limit the number of embryonic stem cell lines that could be used for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • oocyte
  • a cell other than the egg or sperm) of an existing or previously existing person and inserting it into an oocyte (the egg) from which the nucleus has been removed. (bio.org)
  • Our study demonstrates for the first time that animals can be derived from the nucleus of mature neurons following transfer into the oocyte. (innovations-report.com)
  • The nucleus of the transfected fibroblast was then inserted into the enucleated oocyte of another dog, leading to generation of dog oocytes expressing the red fluorescent protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic material
  • These findings shift the spotlight away from the type of cell used to produce a clone to the more fundamental question of how the egg cell reactivates the donated genetic material," says Jaenisch. (mit.edu)
  • differentiation
  • therefore, it is proposed that after directed cell differentiation, the cells could be transplanted without immune rejection to treat degenerative disorders such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease (among others). (sciencemag.org)
  • Differentiation refers to the process by which young cells take on specialized roles and functions, becoming one particular cell type, such as blood cells or liver cells. (seedmagazine.com)
  • We discussed how a single cell, a fertilized egg cell, develops into a complex organism, by the dual processes of cell division and differentiation. (libretexts.org)
  • But to stop differentiation at an intermediate step (ie at the adult stem cell step) is harder. (futurepundit.com)
  • Gurdon's recent research has focused on analysing intercellular signalling factors involved in cell differentiation, and on elucidating the mechanisms involved in reprogramming the nucleus in transplantation experiments, including the role of histone variants, and demethylation of the transplanted DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potency is a measure of a cell's differentiation potential, or the number of other cell types that can be made from that stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Many researchers have long assumed that nervous system cells distinguish themselves from each other in the same way that immune system cells do, that is, by removing all pieces of genetic information that the cell doesn't need for its particular function. (mit.edu)
  • Stem cells might not be the easiest way to clone animals: That's what researchers at the University of Connecticut are saying after they recently cloned mice from fully differentiated blood cells. (seedmagazine.com)
  • Researchers have successfully cloned a mouse using mature olfactory neurons as the genetic donor. (innovations-report.com)
  • According to the researchers, previous cloning efforts had failed to clone animals from the nuclei of any mature "post-mitotic" cells such as neurons - that is, those that had ceased dividing to produce new cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Using standard cloning techniques, the researchers in Jaenisch s laboratory then isolated individual neurons, removed nuclei from the tagged cells and introduced the nuclei into mouse eggs from which the nuclei had been removed. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, because iPS can sometimes cause unexpected mutations in the cells, researchers have been seeking alternative methods. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In January 2007, researchers at Wake Forest University reported that "stem cells drawn from amniotic fluid donated by pregnant women hold much of the same promise as embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibroblasts
  • They extracted nuclei from the fibroblasts of an aborted fetal monkey (a crab-eating macaque or Macaca fascicularis) and inserted them into egg cells (ova) that had had their own nuclei removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • The Xenopus model organism is responsible for large amounts of new knowledge on embryonic development and cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word 'cloning' has various meanings in biology. (libretexts.org)
  • Some of the figures I showed are from Lodish et al, Molecular Cell Biology (4th edition, 2000), or are similar to figures from that book. (libretexts.org)
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004, the Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Institute for Cell Biology and Cancer was renamed the Gurdon Institute in his honour. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2004, Eggan moved to Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, as a junior fellow, becoming an assistant professor of Molecular & Cellular Biology at their Stem Cell Institute ("HSCI") in 2005. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • Unlike MILs from normal bone marrow, myeloma MILs possess few regulatory T cells (Tregs) and demonstrate an interleukin-17 phenotype that enhances OC activation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that interleukin-17 T cells are critical to the genesis of myeloma bone disease and that immunologic manipulations shifting MILs from a Th17 to a Th1 phenotype may profoundly diminish lytic bone lesions in multiple myeloma. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Jaenisch
  • This paper demonstrates clearly that it doesn't matter if a stem cell has been derived from a cloned embryo or from a fertilized embryo," says Whitehead Member Rudolf Jaenisch, senior author on the paper that will appear in the online the week of January 16 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (eurekalert.org)
  • In my opinion, these results solidify the argument that while a cloned animal is abnormal, a cloned stem cell is perfectly normal," says Jaenisch. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because the cloned animals are normal, our experiment also shows that [some] brain functions do not involve genetic alterations of the neuron s genome," said Jaenisch. (innovations-report.com)
  • Xenopus
  • Anatomy and Development: images, fate maps, and videos Community Link --- jobs, labs which study Xenopus Protocol List- identify clones, antibodies, procedures Stock Centre- The National Xenopus Resource (maintains frog stocks, offers advanced research training) The Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology was awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka on October 8, 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tadpoles resulting from these eggs did not survive long (past the gastrulation stage), however, further transformation of the nuclei from these Xenopus eggs to a second set of Xenopus eggs resulted in fully developed tadpoles. (wikipedia.org)
  • revert
  • In other words, the egg needs to erase all tissue-specific memories from the skin cell and revert it into a genomic blank slate. (eurekalert.org)
  • In part, this requires that the cell used for cloning be able to revert to the 'primitive' state typical of an egg cell -- able to replicate and differentiate. (libretexts.org)
  • human
  • The following background paper highlights BIO's perspective on the difference between using cloning technology to theoretically clone a human being and the beneficial uses of cloning technology in medicine and agriculture. (bio.org)
  • But using cloning technology to clone human cells does not create a new human being. (bio.org)
  • These are not cells or products that could ever develop into a human being, even if implanted in a uterus. (bio.org)
  • Cloning of human cells has numerous applications in medical research that may lead to cures and treatments for diseases and disabilities such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, various types of cancer, heart disease, and spinal cord injury. (bio.org)
  • Thus far, these human replacement cells appear to function normally in vitro, raising the possibility for their application in the treatment of devastating chronic diseases affecting these tissue types. (bio.org)
  • The use of normal, cloned human liver cells to test new drugs under development for certain toxic metabolites, for example, would reduce the danger of human clinical trials by eliminating such compounds before human testing. (bio.org)
  • Is human cloning ethical? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Until November 2005, he was considered one of the pioneering experts in the field, best known for two articles published in the journal Science in 2004 and 2005 where he reported he had succeeded in creating human embryonic stem cells by cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly after that his human cloning experiments were revealed to be fraudulent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Hwang had already established himself as an expert in animal cloning and secured celebrity status in South Korea in the late 90s, his alleged sudden success came as a surprise because this was the first reported success in human somatic cell cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until Hwang's claim, it was generally agreed that creating a human stem cell by cloning was next to impossible due to the complexity of primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy (or clone) of a human. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The possibility of human cloning has raised controversies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • This would have been the first major breakthrough in human cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although mostly positive, cloning also faces some setbacks in terms of ethics and human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insoo Hyun of Case Western Reserve University questioned whether this meant that human cloning would be next. (wikipedia.org)
  • These stem cells can differentiate into all other cells in the human body and are the subject of much scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since they must be derived from early human embryos their production and use in research has been a hotly debated topic as the emt introduce new cells into adult bodies for possible treatment of cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders and other medical conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until recently, the principal source of human embryonic stem cells has been donated embryos from fertility clinics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third bill would encourage research that would isolate pluripotent, i.e., embryonic-like, stem cells without the destruction of human embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Technique
  • Axel said that the cloning technique should be broadly applicable. (innovations-report.com)
  • In genetic engineering, transposon tagging is a process where transposons (transposable elements) are amplified inside a biological cell by a tagging technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice cloned by the Honolulu technique were displayed at the Bishop Museum in Honolulu, Hawaiʻi, and the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, Illinois. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are the first cloned primates produced by this technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • Garima-I, a buffalo calf cloned using an "Advanced Hand guided Cloning Technique" was born in 2009 at the NDRI. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eggan's technique provides a window into exactly what happens to turn back the clock in cells during cloning--and, indeed, in the normal process of creating sperm, eggs and embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tianjin
  • In 2015 the Chinese company BoyaLife announced that in partnership with the Korean company Sooam Biotech, they were planning to build a factory in Tianjin, China to produce 100,000 cloned cattle per year, starting in 2016 to supply China's growing market for quality beef. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • After Injaz's birth, its DNA was tested at the Molecular Biology and Genetics Laboratory in Dubai and confirmed to be identical copies of the DNA of the original ovarian cells, proving that Injaz is a clone of the original camel. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Expression of mislocalized mutant syntaxin 3 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells leads to basolateral mistargeting of apical membrane proteins, disturbance of tight junction formation, and loss of ability to form an organized polarized epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that SNARE proteins contribute to the overall specificity of membrane trafficking in vivo, and that the polarity of syntaxin 3 is essential for epithelial cell polarization. (rupress.org)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are associated with pre-mRNAs in the nucleus and appear to influence pre-mRNA processing and other aspects of mRNA metabolism and transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis, adipogenesis etc and in several other developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone H2B is one of the 5 main histone proteins involved in the structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spectrins are a family of widely distributed cytoskeletal proteins which are involved in actin crosslinking, cell adhesion, intercellular communication and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to GPCRs, arrestins bind to other classes of cell surface receptors and a variety of other signaling proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA is injected into cells, whose "inner machinery" uses the DNA to synthesize the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these proteins are recognised as foreign, when they are processed by the host cells and displayed on their surface, the immune system is alerted, which then triggers immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Found in the nucleus of every cell, building blocks from which every organism is built, gene information, & can act as receptors for drug molecules. (cram.com)
  • B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibody molecules closely modelled after the receptors of the precursor B cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other metabotropic receptors, mGluRs have seven transmembrane domains that span the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • Dr. Ulrich Wernery and Dr. Lulu Skidmore, commented that the camel cloning "gives a means of preserving the valuable genetics of our elite racing and milk-producing camels in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • receptor
  • Involved in FCER1 (high affinity immunoglobulin epsilon receptor)-mediated signaling in mast cells. (uniprot.org)
  • Interferon type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that consists of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second non-visual arrestin cloned was first termed β-arrestin-2 (retroactively changing the name of β-arrestin into β-arrestin-1), even though by that time it was clear that non-visual arrestins interact with hundreds of different GPCRs, not just with β2-adrenergic receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • stain
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • localizes
  • In polarized epithelial cells, syntaxin 3 localizes to the apical plasma membrane and is involved in membrane fusion of apical trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • bone marrow
  • Recently they have been shown to reside for much longer periods in the bone marrow as long-lived plasma cells (LLPC). (wikipedia.org)
  • a secondary response produces longer-lived cells that produce IgG and IgA, and frequently travel to the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated whether AM enhances bone marrow cell-induced angiogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Methods and Results- Immediately after hindlimb ischemia was created, rats were randomized to receive AM infusion plus bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell (MNC) transplantation (AM+MNC group), AM infusion alone (AM group), MNC transplantation alone (MNC group), or vehicle infusion (control group). (ahajournals.org)
  • pathways
  • The clear distinction between apical and basolateral trafficking pathways makes epithelial cells a good system in which to test the central prediction of the SNARE hypothesis on their contribution to the overall specificity of trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • Human
  • CFL1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_005498), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15NL-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15NL-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. (creative-proteomics.com)
  • chromatin
  • Caspase signals resulting from the activation of nuclease CAD indicate that the cell differentiation is due to a CAD modification in chromatin structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph nodes , the activated B cell begins to differentiate into more specialized cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fate
  • The ability to form, recognize and manipulate the differentiation of definitive ectoderm is crucial to understanding the determination of cell fate in the ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • Probably involved in the regulatory networks that define neural crest cell fate specification and determine mesoderm cell lineages in mammals. (genecards.org)
  • regulation
  • It has been associated with heterochromatin and PML-NBs (Promyelocytic Leukaemia nuclear bodies) and has been implicated in many nuclear processes including transcription and cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It plays an important role in the biology of the nucleus where it is involved in the packaging and maintaining of chromosomes, regulation of transcription, and replication and repair of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • The role of HAP1 in HD pathogenesis may involve aberration of cell cycle processes, as high immunostaining of HAP1 during the cell cycle has been observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • The ability to progress via a definitive ectoderm intermediate will underpin the development of rational and efficient methodologies for the derivation of specific ectodermal cell populations from pluripotent cells in culture for use as experimental models or to produce cells with therapeutic applications. (biologists.org)
  • It is also essential for development of nerval system by programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • HAP1 also shows a similar CNS distribution pattern to that of neural nitric oxide synthase (nNos), especially in both of the pedunculopontine nuclei, the supraoptic nucleus, and the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • Fish and other vertebrates appear to have only three arrestins: no equivalent of arrestin-2, which is the most abundant non-visual subtype in mammals, was cloned so far. (wikipedia.org)
  • Found
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are sixteen variants of histone H2B found in humans, thirteen of which are expressed in regular body cells and three of which are only expressed in the testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, one study found that Group I mGluRs are located mostly on postsynaptic parts of cells, while groups II and III are mostly located on presynaptic elements, though they have been found on both pre- and postsynaptic membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Targeting of p21 promoter is responsible for inducing cell differentiation, which is promoted by modifying the DNA nuclear microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • A cell may stay in this state for several days, and then either die or irrevocably differentiate into a mature, fully differentiated plasma cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to this, there had been several unsuccessful attempts in the Emirate to clone a camel. (wikipedia.org)
  • component
  • CPSF1 is the largest component of the CPSF complex composed of CPSF1, CPSF2, CPSF3, CPSF4 and FIP1L1, and located in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)