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  • mouse embryos
  • In 1995, researchers Ann Burke, Craig Nelson, Bruce Morgan, and Cliff Tabin in the US studied the genes that regulate the construction of vertebra in developing chick and mouse embryos, they showed similar patterns of gene regulation across both species, and they concluded that those patterns were inherited from an ancestor common to all vertebrate animals. (asu.edu)
  • J. Hao, J. Pareja, N. Zaninovic, "P-1022: Derivation of Embryonic Stem Cells From Individual 2-Cell Mouse Embryos: Model for Blastomere Totipotency and Embryo Splitting," Fertility and Sterility 86, no. 3 (September 2006): S513. (lifeissues.net)
  • karyotypes
  • In a particularly advantageous embodiment, the cells of the preparation are human embryonic stem cells, have normal karyotypes, and continue to proliferate in an undifferentiated state after continuous culture for eleven months. (google.es)
  • Recent studies include HESC with normal and abnormal karyotypes following transplantation in vivo and his research has recently moved on to collaborative projects on the epigenetic status of HESC and involving nuclear transfer for the generation of HESC. (isscr.org)
  • genome
  • This asexual form of reproduction would bypass the usual 'shuffling' of genes that makes every individual unique in his/her genome and would arbitrarily fix the genotype in one particular configuration, (12) with predictable negative genetic consequences for the human genepool. (vatican.va)
  • In the August and September 2000 issues, I penned two articles on "Cracking the Code-The Human Genome Project in Perspective. (apologeticspress.org)
  • One of the seminal achievements of mammalian embryology of the last decade is the routine insertion of specific genes into the mouse genome through the use of mouse ES cells. (google.es)
  • Dolly
  • The team of scientists used the methods identified during the Dolly experiments to produce transgenic livestock capable of producing milk containing human blood clotting factor IX, which helps to treat a type of hemophilia. (asu.edu)
  • It turns out that the successful cloning of Dolly was only the tip of the proverbial iceberg. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The technique of transferring a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg that produced Dolly was an extension of experiments that had been ongoing for over 40 years. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • In the simplest terms, the technique used to produce Dolly the sheep - somatic cell nuclear transplantation cloning - involves removing the nucleus of an egg and replacing it with the diploid nucleus of a somatic cell. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • Recently it was reported that Dolly has arthritis, although it is not yet clear whether the five-and-a-half-year-old sheep is suffering from the condition as a result of the cloning process. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • The announcement of Dolly sparked widespread speculation about a human child being created using somatic cell nuclear transfer. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • fertilization
  • On 10 March 1988, China's first baby conceived through human in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET), commonly referred to as a test-tube baby, was born at the Peking Hospital (PUTH) in Beijing. (asu.edu)
  • The biomedical accomplishment of human in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) took years to become the successful technique that presently enables infertile couples to have their own children. (asu.edu)
  • Robert Geoffrey Edwards, a British developmental biologist at University of Cambridge, began exploring human in vitro fertilization (IVF) as a way to treat infertility in 1960. (asu.edu)
  • So, using presently available in vitro fertilization techniques, they set out intentionally to create a "genetically matched" brother or sister for Molly-with the specific goal of using the newborn's stem cells (derived from the umbilical-cord blood shortly after birth) to treat Molly's condition. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Between fertilization and the eighth week of gestation, the embryo undergoes multiple cell divisions. (asu.edu)
  • Their work was published on 4 August 1944 in an issue of Science in an article entitled "In Vitro Fertilization and Cleavage of Human Ovarian Eggs. (asu.edu)
  • This experiment marked the first time in history that a human embryo was produced outside of the human body, proving that in vitro fertilization was possible in humans. (asu.edu)
  • In the first hours after fertilization, this cell divides into identical totipotent cells. (thailabonline.com)
  • Approximately four days after fertilization and after several cycles of cell division, these totipotent cells begin to specialize, forming a hollow sphere of cells, called a blastocyst. (thailabonline.com)
  • researchers
  • Collaborating with other researchers, Edwards eventually fertilized a human egg in vitro in 1969. (asu.edu)
  • In a series of experiments during mid 1930s, a team of researchers in New York helped establish that bacteria of the species Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans, and in infants can cause toxoplasmosis, a disease that inflames brains, lungs, and hearts, and that can organisms that have it. (asu.edu)
  • Using wildtype or engineered stem cell lines, researchers may use this technique to uncover the various mechanisms or treatments that may affect early brain infection and resulting microcephaly in Zika virus-infected embryos. (jove.com)
  • In 1995 and 1996, researchers at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, cloned mammals for the first time. (asu.edu)
  • In the 1990s, researchers working at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, performed cloning experiments in collaboration with PPL Therapeutics in Roslin, Scotland, on human coagulation factor IX, a protein. (asu.edu)
  • Some leading U.S. stem cell researchers moved to other countries. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Newer technologies for cell derivation have overcome these problems, but federally funded researchers can't use them since they were created after August 2001. (dartmouth.edu)
  • In 2004, a little-known team of Korean researchers announced that they had created a cloned human embryo and used it to derive a line of stem cells. (dartmouth.edu)
  • In late 1999, the IVF procedure was carried out, and in early October of 2000, as Time reported, researchers working at the Fairview University Hospital in Minneapolis, Minnesota, successfully transferred the stem cells from the newborn's (his name is Adam) umbilical cord to Molly. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Dr. John Rock, a doctor of obstetrics and gynecology in Boston, and Miriam Menkin, Rock s hired lab technician, were the first researchers to fertilize a human egg outside of a human body in February of 1944. (asu.edu)
  • The researchers extracted the egg cell from the ovary of the domestic cow and the skin cell from the skin of the gaur. (asu.edu)
  • First, the researchers performed nuclear transplantation on the egg cell of the cow, during which they removed the nucleus of the egg cell. (asu.edu)
  • mice
  • He measured the conditions and timings for in vitro (out of the body) maturation of oocytes from diverse mammals including mice, rats, hamsters, pigs, cows, sheep, and rhesus monkeys, as well as humans. (asu.edu)
  • Depending on the goal of the research, large animals as models of pulmonary disease often resemble the situation of the human lung much better than mice do. (jove.com)
  • Then surely the next question becomes obvious: If scientists have successfully cloned sheep, mice, cattle, goats, monkeys, and pigs (all of which are mammals), can they then clone humans-who likewise are mammals? (apologeticspress.org)
  • Mouse ES cells injected into syngeneic mice form teratocarcinomas that exhibit disorganized differentiation, often with representatives of all three embryonic germ layers. (google.es)
  • As mice embryos develop, they undergo a stage of development called gastrulation. (asu.edu)
  • R&D systems, Cytokine bulletin 2007: TGF-beta Superfamily Signaling in ES cells (Mice are Not Men) p. 1-3. (patentgenius.com)
  • And, scientists in Tokyo have shown that cloned mice die significantly earlier than those that are naturally conceived, raising an additional concern that the mutations that accumulate in somatic cells might affect nuclear transfer efficiency and lead to cancer and other diseases in offspring. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • ethical
  • These ethical objections cannot be over-ridden by the claim that the embryo is entitled to a "special respect" but that this respect can be violated if there is sufficient benefit for others. (blogspot.com)
  • Nor can the ethical issues be side-stepped by calling the blastocyst a "pre-embryo. (blogspot.com)
  • Technical problems aside, the need to extract these cells from living human embryos raises ethical questions of the highest order. (vatican.va)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recent news that almost all of the Korean work was fraudulent, however, has cast a pall over stem cell research and given ammunition to those who oppose it on ethical and religious grounds. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Thus, the prospect of applying this technique in humans is troubling for scientific and safety reasons in addition to a variety of ethical reasons related to our ideas about the natural ordering of family and successive generations. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • member of Ethical Committee on Animal Experimentation, District Court of Huddinge, Sweden, member of the ISSCR Stem Cell Standards Committee, and member of the Committee on ES cells in the Federation of International Mouse Resources (FIMRE). (isscr.org)
  • The development of these human pluripotent stem cell lines deserves close scientific examination, evaluation of the promise for new therapies, and prevention strategies, and open discussion of the ethical issues. (thailabonline.com)
  • development
  • Recording and contextualizing the science of embryos, development, and reproduction. (asu.edu)
  • Diagram of the ways to reprogram cells along with the development of humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests that RelA/p50 plays an important role in certain steps of B cell development, although genes regulated by RelA/p50 have yet to be identified. (rupress.org)
  • Cytokeratin is an epithelial cell marker and Pax-2 is necessary for kidney development. (ufl.edu)
  • The recent development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and related technologies has caught the attention of scientists, activists, politicians, and ethicists alike. (asu.edu)
  • Gurdon's first experiment in 1958 showed that the nuclei of Xenopus cells maintained their ability to direct normal development when transplanted. (asu.edu)
  • Edmund Beecher Wilson experimented with Amphioxus (Branchiostoma) embryos in 1892 to identify what caused their cells to differentiate into new types of cells during the process of development. (asu.edu)
  • Wilson shook apart the cells at early stages of embryonic development, and he observed the development of the isolated cells. (asu.edu)
  • He observed that in the normal development of Amphioxus, all three main types of symmetry, or cleavage patterns observed in embryos, could be found. (asu.edu)
  • The Potency of the First Two Cleavage Cells in Echinoderm Development. (asu.edu)
  • In the spring of 1891 Driesch performed experiments using two-celled sea urchin embryos, the results of which challenged the then-accepted understanding of embryo development. (asu.edu)
  • 2005, "TGFb/Activin/Nodal Signaling is Necessary for the Maintenance of Pluripotency in Human Embryonic Stem Cells," Development, 132:1273-1282. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2004, "Development of Definitive Endoderm from Embryonic Stem Cells in Culture," Development, 131 (7):1651-1662. (patentgenius.com)
  • HNF-3beta is essential for node and notochord formation in mouse development," Cell 78:561-574,1994. (patentgenius.com)
  • Variant Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 Is Required for Visceral Endoderm Specification," Development 126:4795-4805,1999. (patentgenius.com)
  • Clifford Grobstein, "The Early Development of Human Embryos," Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 10, (1985): 213-236. (lifeissues.net)
  • An additional concern focuses on whether cellular aging will affect the ability of somatic cell nuclei to program normal development. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • They are best described in the context of normal human development. (thailabonline.com)
  • Human development begins when a sperm fertilizes an egg and creates a single cell that has the potential to form an entire organism. (thailabonline.com)
  • While stem cells are extraordinarily important in early human development, multipotent stem cells are also found in children and adults. (thailabonline.com)
  • sheep
  • They reported their results in the article 'Sheep Cloned by Nuclear Transfer from a Cultured Cell Line' in March 1996. (asu.edu)
  • British embryologist Sir Ian Wilmut, best known for his work in the field of animal genetic engineering and the successful cloning of sheep, was born 7 July 1944 in Hampton Lucy, England. (asu.edu)
  • That zygote-which then contained the full complement of 54 chromosomes (as if it had been fertilized by a sperm cell)-was placed into the uterus of a second Scottish Blackface sheep that served as a surrogate mother. (apologeticspress.org)
  • hESC
  • Once iPSC colonies exhibit typical human embryonic stem cell (hESC) morphology, they are gently transferred to individual iMEF-coated tissue culture plates for continued growth and expansion. (jove.com)
  • Many in the international scientific community believe that the promise of stem cell-based studies or therapies will be realized only if we can derive new human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines. (jci.org)
  • 2001
  • In August 2001, shortly after ACT's research began, President Bush announced a policy permitting federal funding for research on only a limited number of embryonic stem cell lines created before that date. (dartmouth.edu)
  • When the editors of Time screamed on the cover of their February 19, 2001 issue, "Human Cloning is Closer than You Think! (apologeticspress.org)
  • J.P. Geraedts, G.M. de Wert, "Cloning: Applications in Humans 1: Technical Aspects," Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde 108, no. 4 (April 2001): 145-150, available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11383357 (accessed February 5, 2008). (lifeissues.net)
  • pluripotency
  • Understanding the fundamentals of biological decisions, including what permits a cell to maintain pluripotency, that is, its ability to self-renew and thereby remain immortal, or to differentiate into multiple types of cells, is of profound importance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One challenge in their usage for such therapies is understanding the mechanisms that allow the maintenance of pluripotency and controlling the specific differentiation into required functional target cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While gene regulatory networks that enhance our knowledge of pluripotency will help our understanding of stem cell biology, there are additional implications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The role of PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK and NF kappa beta signaling in the maintenance of human embryonic stem celll pluripotency and viability highlighted by transcriptional profiling and functional analysis," Human Molecular Genetics15:1460-2083,2006. (patentgenius.com)
  • Hans-Werner Denker, "Totipotency/Pluripotency and Patentability," Stem Cells 26, no. 6 (June 2008):1656-1657, available from http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/full/26/6/1656 . (lifeissues.net)
  • developmental
  • and at least some of these stem cells seem to have as wide a developmental potential as embryonic stem cells. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • In 1969, more than ten years after the first attempts to treat infertilities with IVF technologies, the British developmental biologist Robert Geoffrey Edwards fertilized human oocytes in a Petri dish for the first time. (asu.edu)
  • This paper outlined the successful purification and identification of nerve growth factor (NGF) as a protein, the developmental effects of depriving an embryo of NGF, and the discovery that NGF is also required for the maintenance of the nervous system. (asu.edu)
  • Vascular alterations underlie developmental problems manifested in cloned cattle before or after birth. (jove.com)
  • In 1962 researcher John Bertrand Gurdon at the University of Oxford in Oxford, England, conducted a series of experiments on the developmental capacity of nuclei taken from intestinal epithelium cells of feeding tadpoles. (asu.edu)
  • Bruce M. Carlson, Human Embryology and Developmental Biology , 2nd ed. (lifeissues.net)
  • This cell contains a different set of genetic instructions (resulting in an alternative pattern of gene expression) and is characterized by a reduced proliferative capacity and more restricted developmental potential than its parent. (jci.org)
  • Criteria that optimize the potential of murine embryonic stem cells for in vitro and in vivo developmental studies", In Vitro Cell. (patents.com)
  • Biology
  • Barwy Pasażowanie ludzkich embrionalnych komórek macierzystych linii Trypsyna Erin Trish 1 , John Dimos 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard W tym filmie pokazujemy, jak w naszym laboratorium rutynowo fragmenty barwy linii ludzkich zarodkowych komórek macierzystych, z trypsyny. (jove.com)
  • Zamrażanie komórek ES człowieka Erin Trish 1 , John Dimos 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard Tutaj pokazujemy, jak w naszym laboratorium zawiesza barwy linii ludzkich zarodkowych komórek macierzystych. (jove.com)
  • Człowieka komórek ES: Kultura Od mrożone komórki Erin Trish 1 , John Dimos 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard Tutaj pokazujemy, jak w naszym laboratorium rozpoczyna odcienie ludzkich zarodkowych komórek macierzystych kultury linii mrożonych ręki. (jove.com)
  • Transfer jądra do komórki jajowej myszy Dieter Egli 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard Ten film i protokół mają pomóc nauki transfer jądra. (jove.com)
  • Passage TINTEN menselijke embryonale stamcellijnen-lijnen met trypsine Erin Trish 1 , John Dimos 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard In deze video laten we zien hoe onze lab routinematig TINTEN menselijke embryonale stamcellijnen passages met trypsine. (jove.com)
  • Invriezen menselijke embryonale stamcellen Erin Trish 1 , John Dimos 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard Hier laten we zien hoe onze lab TINTEN menselijke embryonale stamcellijnen bevriest. (jove.com)
  • Menselijke ES-cellen: Vanaf Cultuur van bevroren cellen Erin Trish 1 , John Dimos 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard Hier laten we zien hoe onze lab een TINTEN menselijke embryonale stamcellen lijn cultuur begint met een bevroren voorraad. (jove.com)
  • Nuclear Transfer naar Mouse Eicellen Dieter Egli 1 , Kevin Eggan 1 1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard Deze film en het protocol zijn bedoeld om te leren nucleaire transfer. (jove.com)
  • Thus, the Holy See earnestly encourages investigations that are being carried out in the fields of medicine and biology, with the goal of curing diseases and of improving the quality of life of all, provided that they are respectful of the dignity of the human being. (vatican.va)
  • Participating in this way in a commercial enterprise ensures that advances in cell biology and genomics are applied ethically. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The study of pluripotent stem cells has generated much interest in both biology and medicine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we consider the mRNAs and novel genes with unique expression and imprinting patterns that were discovered using systems biology approaches with primate pluripotent stem and germ cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To engage in this debate, it is important to have an overview of stem cell biology. (jci.org)
  • This in vitro differentiation system should prove useful for understanding human melanocyte biology and revealing the mechanism of various pigment cell disorders, including melanoma. (jove.com)
  • Later, working in the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, NINDS, NIH, he studied the functional integration of stem cell-derived neurons into the developing brain. (isscr.org)
  • research
  • The first human embryonic stem (hES) cell bank was officially opened in the UK in May 2004 , with Health Minister Lord Warner saying, "This potentially revolutionary research could benefit thousands of patients. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The centre contains just two stem cell lines developed by research teams at King s College London and the Centre for Life in Newcastle. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • There is simply no case for supporting research in hES cells any longer. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Bush's new appointed head of the President's Council on Bioethics, on the morality of research carried out on embryos -- from testimony before congress in 1999. (blogspot.com)
  • The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops has a very thoroughly researched article up discussing "research cloning" and current state legislation regarding cloning. (blogspot.com)
  • Until recently, groups promoting research cloning, such as the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), supported state and federal bills that prohibit implanting a cloned embryo in a womb. (blogspot.com)
  • For example, in Congress they supported the "Human Cloning Ban and Stem Cell Research Protection Act" of 2003 (S. 303). (blogspot.com)
  • People see the name Christopher Reeve and assume that it is about embryonic stem cell research. (blogspot.com)
  • Led by gynecologist Zhang Lizhu, the PUTH research team had devoted more than four years to the human IVF-ET project. (asu.edu)
  • This respect demands that any research that is inconsistent with the dignity of the human being is morally excluded. (vatican.va)
  • The Holy See opposes the cloning of human embryos for the purpose of destroying them in order to harvest their stem cells, even for a noble purpose, because it is inconsistent with the ground and motive of human biomedical research, that is, respect for the dignity of human beings. (vatican.va)
  • 3) By contrast, research using human embryonic stem cells has been hampered by important technical difficulties (4). (vatican.va)
  • In 1952 Robert Briggs and Thomas J. King published their article, "Transplantation of Living Nuclei from Blastula Cells into Enucleated Frogs' Eggs," in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the culmination of a series of experiments conducted at the Institute for Cancer Research and Lankenau Hospital Research Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (asu.edu)
  • F ive years ago, Michael West, the president of a small, privately funded biotech company called Advanced Cell Technology (ACT), asked me to help form an ethics advisory board to provide oversight for the company's planned research on human embryonic stem cells. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Stimulated by this research, state legislatures around the U.S. began considering funding stem cell research to fill the gap left by federal abandonment. (dartmouth.edu)
  • And if, as with Weissman et al, human cloning is not cloning if it is for " research " purposes, then the Dickey Amendment could even be construed to allow human cloning for "research" purposes . (lifeissues.net)
  • NOTE: What we are clearly beginning to see emerge here is the massive contradictions accruing among several major federal research documents interwoven as "authorities" over the years, using erroneous (or no) scientific definitions for "political" purposes now concretized as stare decisis , ultimately rendering them unconstitutional due to vagueness, and impotent in protecting the lives of both sexually and asexually reproduced human beings in research and in reproduction. (lifeissues.net)
  • Under HHS [OHRP federal] regulations at 45 CFR Part 46, human subject means a living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student) conducting research obtains (1) data through intervention or interaction with the individual, or (2) identifiable private information . (lifeissues.net)
  • 1. The definition of " human subject research " is the focus of these Guidances, and references are given to both the current OHRP federal regulations (45 CFR 46) and to Public Law 103-43 (the NIH Revitalization Act). (lifeissues.net)
  • Much of the hope invested in embryonic stem (ES) cell research surrounds its promise to provide a broad spectrum of medical applications. (stembook.org)
  • According to the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), the standard American source on stem cell research, three characteristics of stem cells differentiate them from other cell types: (1) they are unspecialized cells that (2) divide for long periods, renewing themselves and (3) can give rise to specialized cells, such as muscle and skin cells, under particular physiological and experimental conditions. (asu.edu)
  • EDITOR'S NOTE: Two of the most hotly debated and currently controversial topics-in the fields of science, religion, ethics, and politics-are human cloning and stem-cell research. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Induction-Dependent and Lineage-Dependent Models for Cell-Diversification Are Mutually Exclusive," Progress in Clinical Biological Research 175, (1985): 3-11. (lifeissues.net)
  • This has led to an intense debate that threatens to limit embryonic stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • A stem cell is defined by two properties (see A stem cell research lexicon ). (jci.org)
  • This technique can also be used to produce an embryo from which cells called embryonic stem (ES) cells could be extracted to use in research into potential therapies for a wide variety of diseases. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • Nissim Benvenisty M.D., Ph.D. , is the Herbert Cohn Chair in Cancer Research and the director of the Stem Cell Unit at the Hebrew University. (isscr.org)
  • Recent published reports on the isolation and successful culturing of the first human pluripotent stem cell lines have generated great excitement and have brought biomedical research to the edge of a new frontier. (thailabonline.com)
  • scientists
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now, with reports arriving almost daily about proposals to clone humans, and with similar reports surfacing with disturbing frequency about scientists' planned use of human-derived stem cells, I believe that an in-depth analysis of these two subjects is both timely and warranted. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The term cloning is used by scientists to describe many different processes that involve making duplicates of biological material. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • hESCs
  • But it wasn't until January 2009 that the Food and Drug Administration approved the first human clinical trials using hESCs. (asu.edu)
  • nuclei
  • Cytoplasmic factors present in mature, metaphase II (MII)-arrested oocytes have a unique ability to reset the identity of transplanted somatic cell nuclei to the embryonic state. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The experiments indicated how to reprogram nuclei from differentiated cells to produce live offspring, and that a single population of differentiated cells could produce multiple offspring. (asu.edu)
  • In this paper Briggs and King examined whether nuclei of embryonic cells are differentiated, and by doing so, were the first to conduct a successful nuclear transplantation with amphibian embryos. (asu.edu)
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a technique that allows specific DNA sequences to be detected on metaphase or interphase chromosomes in cell nuclei 1 . (jove.com)
  • vivo
  • Bovine clones that survived until the neonatal period differed quantitatively and qualitatively from in-vivo-derived cattle. (jove.com)
  • mammalian
  • In a series of experiments between 1960 and 1965, Robert Geoffrey Edwards discovered how to make mammalian egg cells, or oocytes, mature outside of a female's body. (asu.edu)