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  • 2016
  • In 2015 the Chinese company BoyaLife announced that in partnership with the Korean company Sooam Biotech, they were planning to build a factory in Tianjin, China to produce 100,000 cloned cattle per year, starting in 2016 to supply China's growing market for quality beef. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2016 the scientist at the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes in Hisar, India announced that they had cloned a buffalo offspring "Cirb Gaurav" using cells of the ventral side of the tail of superior buffalo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sooam Biotech was reported to have cloned 700 dogs by 2015, a cloning success rate of 40% and to be producing 500 cloned embryos of various species a day in 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • Gene, the first cloned calf in the world was born in 1997 at the American Breeders Service facilities in Deforest, Wisconsin, United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers
  • An international group of researchers have raised the viability of mice that were cloned using a method called somatic cell nuclear transfer, by stimulating two epigenetic factors, and by doing this have shown that creating cloned animals more efficiently will require further work in the area of epigenetics. (medicalnewser.com)
  • Researchers have tried to test the integrity of these surviving stem cells by transplanting them into fertilized blastocysts and then observing the overall health of the resulting animal. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, most researchers believe that in the foreseeable future it will not be possible to use this technique to produce a human clone that will develop to term. (bootstrike.com)
  • As proof, researchers report they created two mouse pups from a type of blood cell that itself is incapable of dividing to produce a second generation of its own kind. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is the first demonstration that an animal can be derived directly from a fully differentiated cell, report lead researchers Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang, Ph.D., of the University of Connecticut, and Tao Cheng, M.D., of the University of Pittsburgh, in the journal Nature Genetics. (eurekalert.org)
  • In their studies, the researchers compared the efficiency for cloning mice using a fully differentiated blood cell called a granulocyte with its ancestor cells at different stages: hematopoietic stem cells, which are found in bone marrow and give rise to all red and white blood cells, and progenitor cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • nuclei
  • The experiments indicated how to reprogram nuclei from differentiated cells to produce live offspring, and that a single population of differentiated cells could produce multiple offspring. (asu.edu)
  • Granulocytes are well characterized white blood cells unique for their segmented nuclei and the numerous granules in the cells' cytoplasm. (eurekalert.org)
  • They extracted nuclei from the fibroblasts of an aborted fetal monkey (a crab-eating macaque or Macaca fascicularis) and inserted them into egg cells (ova) that had had their own nuclei removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • The aim of carrying out this procedure is to obtain stem cells that are genetically matched to the donor organism. (bootstrike.com)
  • This demonstrated for the first time that the DNA in a somatic cell (specifically, a breast cell) still contained all the information needed to direct the formation of an entire organism, and that this information could be made accessible again in the adult cell. (bioedonline.org)
  • Dr. Paul McHugh, psychiatry professor at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, argues that "without fooling around with it," the cloning process does not produce a viable human organism and should be regarded as tissue culture. (lifeissues.net)
  • Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms (organism cloning). (wikipedia.org)
  • turning on genes needed for e
  • For a viable fetus to develop, the egg needs to reprogram the genome of the skin cell, shutting off genes specific for skin tissue and turning on genes needed for embryonic development, genes that are normally dormant in tissue-specific cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • gene
  • Tobias Brambrink, a postdoctoral researcher in the Jaenisch lab, tried a different approach, comparing gene expression in cloned and fertilization-derived stem cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • If a gene is active in fertilized stem cells, it's also active in cloned stem cells, and at the same level of activity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Missy died in 2002 before efforts to clone her had succeeded, but her DNA was gene banked for future cloning efforts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The news of the project to clone Missy spread quickly, and many people contacted Hawthorne and Sperling wanting to gene bank and clone their own pets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr John Engelhardt is the director at the University of Iowa Center for Gene Therapy of Cystic Fibrosis as well as the head of the department of Anatomy and Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • url= (help) "John F. Engelhardt, PhD". American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shoukhrat Mitalipov (Shoe-KHRAHT Mee-tuhl-EE-pov, Russian: Шухрат Музапарович Миталипов, born 1961) is an American biologist who heads the Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy at the Oregon Health & Science University in Portland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A year later Polly and Molly were cloned, both sheep contained a human gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The egg that was used had been modified to include the jellyfish gene to make cells glow under a special microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientist
  • The scientist can then either remove the stem cells from this blastocyst, or place it into a uterus where it has the potential to develop into a fetus. (eurekalert.org)
  • He is a well known scientist who created the first cloned ferret and has made huge strides in finding the cure for Cystic Fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • These cells express the genes appropriate for mammary gland function, not the genes which are important for embryonic development. (hstalks.com)
  • Only few clones manage to activate these genes, and those which do manage to activate these genes are often not normal. (hstalks.com)
  • With a series of microarray chips, Brambrink measured which genes were active and which were silent in both kinds of cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • A potential use of genetically-customized stem cells would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to the particular disease. (bootstrike.com)
  • Operation CopyCat was a branch of the Missyplicity Project that concentrated on cloning cats, after the discovery that dog genes are harder to copy than cat genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • technique
  • Handmade cloning (HMC) technique has been applied as efficient and cost‐effective alternative in many livestock species. (deepdyve.com)
  • Garima-I, a buffalo calf cloned using an "Advanced Hand guided Cloning Technique" was born in 2009 at the NDRI. (wikipedia.org)
  • She was the first primate to have been cloned using this "splitting" technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • To the contrary, we found that cloned pups can be produced from adult, fully differentiated somatic cells, a conclusion that goes against popular opinion and current hypotheses," says Dr. Yang, animal science professor, director of the University of Connecticut's Center for Regenerative Biology and co-corresponding author of the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • John F. Engelhardt, PhD". Anatomy and Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xiangzhong
  • A Holstein heifer named Daisy was cloned by Dr. Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang using ear skin cells from a high-merit cow named Aspen at the University of Connecticut in 1999, followed by three additional clones, Amy, Betty, and Cathy in 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • animal
  • PITTSBURGH, Oct. 1 - New research dismisses the notion that adult stem cells are necessary for successful animal cloning, proving instead that cells that have completely evolved to a specific type not only can be used for cloning purposes, but they may be a better and more efficient starting point. (eurekalert.org)
  • The cloned animal are included in list when citing science sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 2005[update], Megan was still alive and was the oldest cloned animal at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • human stem
  • He is known for discovering a controversial genetic therapy that may be a way to prevent mitochondrial diseases, as well as a new way of creating human stem cells from skin cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In May 2013, Mitalipov and his team published a study in Cell that describes a new process for creating human stem cells from skin cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • There is really no significant molecular difference between both kinds of stem cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Either that or this psychiatrist, operating far outside of his academic area of expertise, is totally ignorant of the massive number of scientific studies that refute his claims concerning human embryological development, human molecular genetics, and the hundreds of recent studies already published concerning the ability to by-pass heretofore genetic barriers that prevented normal embryological development of cloned human embryos. (lifeissues.net)
  • Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • primate
  • She is the first "cloned" primate by artificial twinning, and was created by a team led by Professor Gerald Schatten of the Oregon National Primate Research Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • Genes involved in controlling cell death encode proteins with three distinct functions: "Killer" proteins are required for a cell to begin the apoptotic process "Destruction" proteins do things such as digest DNA in a dying cell "Engulfment" proteins are required for phagocytosis of the dying cell by another cell The cleavage of chromosomal DNA into smaller fragments is an integral part, and biochemical hallmark, of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the protective defenses of the immune system that help eradicate pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hnRNPs are RNA-binding proteins and they complex with heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone H2B is one of the 5 main histone proteins involved in the structure of chromatin in eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear factor I (NFI) proteins constitute a family of dimeric DNA-binding proteins with similar, and possibly identical, DNA-binding specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure, such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • Western Blot analysis of RAG2 expression in transfected 293T cell line ( H00005897-T01 ) by RAG2 MaxPab polyclonal antibody.Lane 1: RAG2 transfected lysate(57.97 KDa).Lane 2: Non-transfected lysate. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Western blot analysis of extracts of various cell lines, using RAG2 antibody. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Immunofluorescence analysis of U20S cell using RAG2 antibody. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Cellular
  • These two ways in which fragmentation is used in cellular processes describe normal cellular functions and common laboratory procedures performed with cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence is the phenomenon by which normal diploid cells cease to divide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, cellular senescence represents a change in "cell state" rather than a cell becoming "aged" as the name confusingly suggests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Exogenous PUFA and a TRPC3 antagonist regularly attenuated breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and migration, recommending a mechanism where PUFA restrains the breasts cancer partially via its inhibition of TRPC stations. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Replication-selective oncolytic adenoviruses are designed to replicate and spread into the tumor, resulting in cancer cell lysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • transcriptional
  • Sphingolipids were added to the cells and the dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the transcriptional activity of PPARs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transcriptional regulation of the human TR2 orphan receptor gene by nuclear factor 1-A". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • However, problems within a cell can sometimes cause fragmentation that results in irregularities such as red blood cell fragmentation and sperm cell DNA fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • the mitochondria in mammalian sperm are usually destroyed by the egg cell after fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • NIH/3T3 and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were transfected with expression vectors for PPARs and retinoid × receptors, and PPAR responsive element reporter vector. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of type I and III IFNs can be induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral components, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment to host receptors, which mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • c-Src is a widely studied member of non-receptor tyrosine kinases which are not associated with a cell-surface receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferon type I: All type I IFNs bind to a specific cell surface receptor complex known as the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) that consists of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • The expression of these Src family members are not the same throughout all tissues and cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Nanos is expressed in multipotent cells, stem cells and primordial germ cells (PGCs) of organisms as diverse as jellyfish and humans. (biologists.org)
  • There are sixteen variants of histone H2B found in humans, thirteen of which are expressed in regular body cells and three of which are only expressed in the testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • Mechanistic studies showed that the synergistic cell death was not due to an increase in viral replication but occurred through an enhancement of apoptotic cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral gene) to one where a gene that is normally present in the cell can cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interferons are named for their ability to "interfere" with viral replication by protecting cells from virus infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral replication is nuclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragmentation
  • It remains inactive in growing cells while it is associated with its inhibitor (ICAD, DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa subunit, DFFA or DFF45) resulting into a complex ICAD-CAD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Per usual in non-apoptotic growing cells caspase activated dnase is held in check inactivated in the cytoplasm thanks to the association with its inhibitor, inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) also known as DNA fragmentation factor 45 kDa (DFF45). (wikipedia.org)
  • replicate
  • The key to cloning a DNA fragment is to link it to a vector DNA molecule that can replicate within a host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • What patient types is the DNA open (cell replication is rapidly occuring)? (cram.com)
  • The basic scheme for this can be summarized as follows: Vector + DNA Fragment ↓ Recombinant DNA ↓ Replication of recombinant DNA within host cell ↓ Isolation, sequencing, and manipulation of purified DNA fragment There are numerous experimental variations to this scheme, but these steps are essential to DNA cloning in a laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • DNA cloning is important in asexual reproduction or creation of identical DNA molecules, and can be performed spontaneously by the cell or intentionally by laboratory researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only relatively small DNA molecules can be cloned in any available vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a single recombinant DNA molecule (composed of a vector plus an inserted DNA fragment) is introduced into a host cell, the inserted DNA can be replicated along with the vector, generating a large number of identical DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • grown
  • Components and strategies Cell lifestyle MCF-7 cells had been grown up in DMEM moderate filled with 10% fetal leg serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin serum as defined (9). (cancercurehere.com)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)