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  • Genes
  • Mutations in al of these four genes result in embryos lacking a horizontal myoseptum and muscle pioneer cells, both of which are thought to be induced by the notochord. (bath.ac.uk)
  • In addition to the four mutants with defects in early notochord formation, we have isolated 84 mutants, defining at least 15 genes, with defects in later stages of notochord development. (bath.ac.uk)
  • In order to identify possible gradients leading to segmentation of the notochord, all 71 notochord-expressed hox genes were investigated, most of them displaying a typical anterior-posterior expression pattern along the notochord axis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The clustering of hox genes revealed a pattern that could be related to notochord segmentation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • KEGG analysis of differentially expressed genes between stages revealed down-regulation of pathways associated with ECM, cell division, metabolism and development at onset of notochord segmentation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent investigations on the notochord cells of amphioxus disclosed actin as a major component of the cellular microfilaments: using the EST (expressed sequence tag) analysis, 12 different types of muscle genes were revealed in amphioxus notochord cells [ 10 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • One of these genes encoded neither cytplasmic nor skeletal type of actin, and therefore was marked as the actin specific only for amphioxus notochord [ 11 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Here we used a well-characterized set of 50 notochord genes known to be targets of the notochord-specific Brachyury transcription factor in one tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Class Ascidiacea), to begin determining whether the same genetic toolkit is employed to build the notochord in another tunicate, Oikopleura dioica (Class Larvacea). (beds.ac.uk)
  • We identified Oikopleura orthologs of the Ciona notochord genes, as well as lineage-specific duplicates for which we determined the phylogenetic relationships with related genes from other chordates, and we analyzed their expression patterns in Oikopleura embryos. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Of the 50 Ciona notochord genes that were used as a reference, only 26 had clearly identifiable orthologs in Oikopleura . (beds.ac.uk)
  • Thirteen of the 28 Oikopleura orthologs of Ciona notochord genes showed clear expression in all or in part of the Oikopleura notochord, seven were diffusely expressed throughout the tail, six were expressed in tissues other than the notochord, while two probes did not provide a detectable signal at any of the stages analyzed. (beds.ac.uk)
  • One of the notochord genes identified, Oikopleura netrin , was found to be unevenly expressed in notochord cells, in a pattern reminiscent of that previously observed for one of the Oikopleura Hox genes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A surprisingly high number of Ciona notochord genes do not have apparent counterparts in Oikopleura , and only a fraction of the evolutionarily conserved genes show clear notochord expression. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This suggests that Ciona and Oikopleura , despite the morphological similarities of their notochords, have developed rather divergent sets of notochord genes after their split from a common tunicate ancestor. (beds.ac.uk)
  • primitive
  • In some vertebrate clades, such as the agnathans (lampreys), and in primitive fish, such as sturgeons, the notochord persists throughout life. (biologists.org)
  • chondrogenic
  • We further investigated how mineralisation is initiated in the notochord, and several factors related to chondrogenic lineage were identified (s ox9 , sox5 , sox6, tgfb3, ihhb and col2a1 ), suggesting a cartilage-like character of the notochord. (biomedcentral.com)
  • gene
  • Homeobox protein notochord (NOTO) is a transcription factor encoded by the gene notochord homeobox (NOTO) located on the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p13.2) in humans (Homo sapiens). (wikipedia.org)
  • An ortholog of NOTO is found in the house mouse (Mus musculus), among other species, as the gene notochord homeobox (Noto) located on chromosome 6, which encodes the homologous transcription factor homeobox protein notochord (Noto). (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • X-gal-positive cells emerging from the node were only detected in the notochord lineage, suggesting that the floor plate and notochord arise from distinct precursors in the mouse node. (biologists.org)
  • formation
  • The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the notochord over time, from its formation to the mature structure. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transplantation of wild-type cells into mutant doc embryos reveals that wild-type notochord cells are sufficient to induce horizontal myoseptum formation in the flanking mutant tissue. (bath.ac.uk)
  • cells
  • In contrast, notochord precursor cells are present in both ntl and doc embryos. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Analysis of individual cells overexpressing β-catenin revealed that these cells were unable to establish stable contacts with notochord cells but could freely cross the boundary to integrate within the somitic tissue. (rupress.org)