• Bhushan B, Chauhan A, Samanta SK, Jain RK (2000) Kinetics of biodegradation of p-nitrophenol by different bacteria. (springer.com)
  • Studies show that nitrophenols released to soil are biodegraded under aerobic conditions, with infiltration into groundwater occurring only under conditions unfavourable to biodegradation. (powells.com)
  • Since the length of conjugated systems affects the color of organic compounds, this ionization change causes the 4-nitrophenol to turn yellow when fully deprotonated and existing as 4-nitrophenolate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrophenol compounds have been used in a number of ways in medicines, explosives, and pesticides (Munnecke 1976). (springer.com)
  • abstract = "The hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol to 4-nitrocatechol was investigated using rabbit hepatic microsomes and six purified isozymes of cytochrome P-450. (elsevier.com)
  • 4-Nitrophenol (also called p-nitrophenol or 4-hydroxynitrobenzene) is a phenolic compound that has a nitro group at the opposite position of the hydroxyl group on the benzene ring. (wikipedia.org)
  • The next electrophile that attacks is the $\ce{NO2+}$, through the reaction $\ce{HNO3/H2SO4}$, the nitro group will attack the para position of the benzene and we get our final product 2-methyl-4-nitrophenol. (stackexchange.com)
  • Nitrophenols are also used in monitoring the enzyme activity, such as ß-galactosidase activity through detection of nitrophenol moiety and concomitant formation of the yellow color. (springer.com)
  • Analyst, 2019, Advance Article DOI: 10.1039/C9AN00722A, PaperYongying Zhou, Jin Zhao, Shenghua Li, Minjie Guo, Zhi Fan A novel electrochemical sensor based on a cyclodextrin-decorated gold nanoparticle -mesoporous carbon hybrid was constructed for the detection ofp-nitrophenol. (medworm.com)
  • 1998) studied Chinese OP factory workers exposed to ethylparathion and metamidophos and reported that urinary p-nitrophenol levels 1 hr after the work shift were positively correlated with serum and urinary FSH levels. (stappenindestad.nl)
  • The study assessed the applicability of Rhizopus oryzae dead fungi as a biosorbent medium for p-nitrophenol ( p -NP) removal from aqueous phase. (hindawi.com)
  • The photoactivity of the samples has been investigated in both the absence and presence of H2O2 for the photo-oxidation of 4-nitrophenol in aqueous suspensions and compared to that of WO3 and of the pure ZrO2 and Nb2O5 supports. (springer.com)
  • Everyone is exposed to very low levels of the nitrophenols in air, water, and soil. (cdc.gov)
  • It takes a long time for nitrophenols to break down in deep soil and in groundwater. (cdc.gov)
  • Occasionally, nitrophenols contaminate the soil near former explosives or fabric factories and military plants, and current research is aimed at remediation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies to isozyme 3a inhibited greater than 95% of the p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity of microsomes form untreated or from ethanol- or acetone-treated rabbits. (elsevier.com)
  • Amounts of 4-nitrophenol produced by a particular enzyme in the presence of its corresponding substrate can be measured with a spectrophotometer at or around 405 nm and used as a proxy measurement for the amount of the enzyme activity in the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accurate measurement of enzyme activity requires that the 4-nitrophenol product is fully deprotonated, existing as 4-nitrophenolate, given the weak absorbance of 4-nitrophenol at 405 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively enzyme activity can be measured at 348 nm, the isosbestic point for 4-nitrophenol/4-nitrophenoxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some studies in animals have shown that 4-nitrophenol is more harmful than 2-nitrophenol when given in high amounts over a short time, but we have very little other information on the effects from longer time exposures at lower levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Skin irritation has been noted in animals that had large amounts of 4-nitrophenol applied to their skin, and eye irritation when it was applied to the eye. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrophenols include two chemicals, 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol, which are very similar to each other. (cdc.gov)
  • 2-Nitrophenol is used mainly to make dyes, paint coloring, rubber chemicals, and substances that kill molds. (cdc.gov)
  • Nitrophenols can be formed in the air as a result of the breakdown of many other manufactured chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • The biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol that have improved isotopic abundance ratios might have altered the physicochemical properties and could be useful in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as an intermediate in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and other useful chemicals for the industrial application. (merlot.org)
  • 4-Nitrophenol is a product of the enzymatic cleavage of several synthetic substrates such as 4-nitrophenyl phosphate (used as a substrate for alkaline phosphatase), 4-nitrophenyl acetate (for carbonic anhydrase), 4-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and other sugar derivatives which are used to assay various glycosidase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anaerobic Toxicity Assay (ATA) tests were conducted on acidogenic cultures to assess the feasibility of using acidogenic processes to treat wastewaters containing 2-nitrophenol. (iwaponline.com)
  • The PNPP phosphatase activity is measured using a continuous or single-point spectrophotometric assay based on the ability of phosphatases to catalyze the hydrolysis of PNPP to p-nitrophenol, a chromogenic product with absorbance at 405 nm. (stappenindestad.nl)
  • The undesirable impact of these recalcitrant organics on organisms, as well as their considerable release through industrial wastes, provoked the researchers to search for innovative effective technologies for the remediation of nitrophenols-rich wastes before their discharge into natural water streams [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Rats that breathed moderate levels of 4-nitrophenol for two weeks developed a blood disorder that reduced the ability of the blood to carry oxygen to tissues and organs. (cdc.gov)