• For this reason, many training agencies are now referring to the narcosis caused by breathing compressed air at depth as "inert gas narcosis" rather than "nitrogen narcosis. (liveabout.com)
  • The calculations by Vitousek and his team show that humans have further added to the amount of nitrogen being circulated by burning forests and grasslands, draining wetlands, and clearing land for growing crops, all of which speed up the recycling of fixed nitrogen stored in soils and vegetation. (newscientist.com)
  • In any case some allowance should be made for the amount of nitrogen collected by the legumes. (dictionary.com)
  • Adverse health effects caused by nitrogen mustards depend on the amount of nitrogen mustard to which people are exposed, the route of exposure, and the length of time that people are exposed. (cdc.gov)
  • Mr. HOULTON: It would increase the amount of nitrogen we think is available to terrestrial plants by about a third. (npr.org)
  • Researchers from China Agricultural University analyzed data from across the country and found the amount of nitrogen expelled into its surroundings every year rose by 8 kilograms per hectare every year between 1980 and 2010. (scientificamerican.com)
  • U.S. corn plantations could hit record highs this year, which is great news as corn requires the largest amount of nitrogen. (aol.com)
  • Corn and cotton share an essential attribute: They need just the right amount of nitrogen to generate high yields. (uga.edu)
  • This Integrated Approach to Nitrogen, (Programma Aanpak Stikstof or PAS in Dutch) was developed to reduce the amount of nitrogen in Natura 2000 areas in the Netherlands and to create room for economic development at the same time. (rivm.nl)
  • In some parts of the Natura 2000 sites, the amount of nitrogen deposition is too high. (rivm.nl)
  • The amount of nitrogen diminished by just over 5 percent. (cbs.nl)
  • Seen over a longer period (1986-2003), the total amount of nitrogen in animal manure has diminished by one third to 363 million kilograms. (cbs.nl)
  • About 78% of the air that we breathe is composed of nitrogen gas, and in some areas of the United States, particularly the northeast, certain forms of nitrogen are commonly deposited in acid rain . (usgs.gov)
  • This paper contrasts the natural and anthropogenic controls on the conversion of unreactive N2 to more reactive forms of nitrogen (Nr). A variety of data sets are used to construct global N budgets for 1860 and the early 1990s and to make projections for the global N budget in 2050. (wri.org)
  • Natural microbial processes convert harmful forms of nitrogen (such as nitrate) to harmless nitrogen gas. (usgs.gov)
  • The microbes could actively remove harmful forms of nitrogen flowing into the lake when dissolved oxygen in groundwater was low. (usgs.gov)
  • But there are also forms of nitrogen in the air that are harmful to people and the environment. (rivm.nl)
  • Measures to reduce emissions of these reactive forms of nitrogen are incorporated into the PAS. (rivm.nl)
  • The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among atmosphere , terrestrial , and marine ecosystems . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen is a "colorless, odorless, tasteless, insoluble, inert diatomic gas comprising 78 percent of the atmosphere by volume. (independent.com)
  • More than 3 million tons of nitrogen are deposited in the United States each year from the atmosphere, derived either naturally from chemical reactions or from the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal and gasoline. (usgs.gov)
  • Nitrogen oxides are broken down rapidly in the atmosphere by reacting with other substances commonly found in the air. (cdc.gov)
  • Forests in Europe and North America are probably growing faster because excess nitrogen stimulates rapid plant growth, and fast-growing trees soak up more carbon from the atmosphere for photosynthesis. (newscientist.com)
  • Mr. BENJAMIN HOULTON (University of California, Davis Professor): If you go into most forest ecosystems for a long time it's been recognized that there's way too much nitrogen accumulating in soils and plants than could be explained by the atmosphere. (npr.org)
  • Nitrogen (N2) is a key building block of all life on Earth and is the most abundant element in the atmosphere -- crucial for plant growth. (yahoo.com)
  • Nitrogen is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, where it is most-commonly bonded with itself in diatomic N2 molecules. (eurekalert.org)
  • Washington, DC--New work from a team led by Carnegie's Alexander Goncharov confirms that nitrogen, the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, becomes a metallic fluid when subjected to the extreme pressure and temperature conditions found deep inside the Earth and other planets. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nitrogen could get into the Earth's mantle when one tectonic plate slides beneath another--a process called subduction--and could even make its way into the iron-rich core as an impurity," explained Carnegie's Shuqing Jiang, the paper's lead author, "or it could be a remnant from Earth's formation that didn't escape via volcanic activity to form the proto-atmosphere in Earth's babyhood. (eurekalert.org)
  • In Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is most-commonly bonded with itself in so-called diatomic, N2, molecules. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nitrogen can replace air and create a stable atmosphere in places such as chemical processing plants and electronics manufacturing factories. (reference.com)
  • Nitrogen is the largest single component of the Earth's atmosphere (78.084% by volume, 75.5% by weight) and is acquired for industrial purposes by the fractional distillation of liquid air or by mechanical means of gaseous air (i.e. (factbites.com)
  • The movement of nitrogen between the atmosphere , biosphere, and geosphere in different forms is described by the nitrogen cycle (Figure 1), one of the major biogeochemical cycles . (factbites.com)
  • Nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere due to human activity remain elevated in industrialized regions of the world and are accelerating in many developing regions (Galloway 1995). (usda.gov)
  • Bacteria in the soil change nitrogen to a gas, and the gas is then returned to the atmosphere. (prezi.com)
  • Lightning also fixes nitrogen directly in the atmosphere , though at a much smaller total rate than that of bacteria. (everything2.com)
  • Indeed, says the study's lead author, Robert Howarth, a Cornell biogeochemist and aquatic ecosystem scientist, "Although we've known that the nitrogen pollution in the atmosphere is also a source of watershed pollution, it's significantly bigger than we thought, yet very few efforts are being focused on reducing the emissions. (newswise.com)
  • He says that managers need to take heed of the magnitude of nitrogen going into the atmosphere from vehicles and power plants and to recognize that climate change can substantially undermine their efforts to reduce nitrogen in the Chesapeake Bay and other coastal rivers and bays in the northeastern United States. (newswise.com)
  • The basic Earth 's atmosphere is about 78 percent nitrogen, making it the largest pool of nitrogen. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This results in nitrates being converted to nitrogen gas and returned to the atmosphere . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In an atmosphere of pure nitrogen, animals died and flames were extinguished. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Is Nitrogen Pollution? (nature.org)
  • Long Island's ponds and lakes also suffer from nitrogen pollution. (nature.org)
  • Even Long Island's most bucolic communities are not immune to the effects of nitrogen pollution. (nature.org)
  • Nitrogen Overload: Environmental Degradation, Ramifications, and Economic Costs presents an integrated, multidisciplinary review of alterations to the nitrogen cycle over the past century and the wide-ranging consequences of nitrogen-based pollution, especially to aquatic ecosystems and human health. (wiley-vch.de)
  • For example, nitrogen which is not utilized by plants may lead to pollution of the groundwater, nutrient enrichment (eutrophication) of waterbodies, acidification of terrestrial ecosystems and the formation of greenhouse gases. (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • Paris (AFP) - The production of goods for consumers in rich nations leaves a deep footprint in the form of potentially-dangerous nitrogen pollution in developing countries, a study said Monday. (yahoo.com)
  • Reactive nitrogen, generated in large part by fuel combustion and agriculture -- mainly fertiliser use -- can contribute to air and water pollution, climate change and acid rain. (yahoo.com)
  • A study in the journal Nature Geoscience said many developed nations had a sky-high nitrogen pollution "footprint" -- much of it left far away in the developing world. (yahoo.com)
  • We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries," they added. (yahoo.com)
  • Consumption in the United States, China, India and Brazil, was responsible for nearly half the world's nitrogen pollution, they added. (yahoo.com)
  • Nitrogen pollution in China has kept pace with the country's rapid growth. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A study published in Nature last week finds that the rate of nitrogen pollution grew by more than half in the last 30 years. (scientificamerican.com)
  • One of the biggest drivers of nitrogen pollution in China is that they are increasing their agricultural productivity. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The varied and widespread symptoms of nitrogen pollution are grassland changes, acidic soils, stressed biodiversity, marine pollution, algal blooms and dying fish. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Even areas of China far away from the source of pollution are feeling these symptoms as surplus nitrogen cascades through its habitats. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Reactive Nitrogen pollution affects every part of the natural environment. (earthtimes.org)
  • Cutting down meat consumption would reduce nitrogen pollution by a considerable amount. (earthtimes.org)
  • The study suggests that the nitrogen pollution emitted in fossil-fuel combustion from vehicles and electric power plants into sensitive coastal rivers and bays could be twice as great as previous estimates for the northeastern United States. (newswise.com)
  • The study also finds that climate significantly influences nitrogen pollution of watersheds: Much more nitrogen flows into watersheds in wet climates than in dry climates throughout the Northeast into systems such as the Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay and Long Island Sound. (newswise.com)
  • Nitrogen is the biggest pollution problem in the nation's waters, with two-thirds of the coastal rivers and bays moderately or severely polluted, says Howarth. (newswise.com)
  • Howarth's new study, however, shows that 35 to 40 percent of this nitrogen pollution gets washed into watersheds with wet climates in the northeastern United States, compared with only 10 to 15 percent of the nitrogen from watersheds in dry climates. (newswise.com)
  • If so, this may undercut efforts to reduce coastal nitrogen pollution in areas such as Chesapeake Bay," says Howarth. (newswise.com)
  • Howarth, who heads the North American Nitrogen Center, which is part of an international effort to focus attention on nitrogen pollution, is the David R. Atkinson Professor in Ecology and Environmental Biology at Cornell. (newswise.com)
  • Until now, scientists believed that the primary sources of nitrogen pollution in the Chesapeake Bay were agricultural -- runoff from fields and feedlots -- and sewage-treatment plants. (newswise.com)
  • Howarth and his colleagues analyzed 16 major watersheds in the northeastern United States and found that not only is more nitrogen flushed into rivers in wetter years, but that wetter climates also have a long-term, steady-state influence on nitrogen pollution into rivers. (newswise.com)
  • The new climate models also forecast that nitrogen flows into the Chesapeake could increase by as much as 17 percent by 2030 and by up to 65 percent by 2095 because of increased human activity that contributes to nitrogen pollution. (newswise.com)
  • They inhabit sections of plant roots called nodules and directly capture nitrogen from the tiny pockets of air that exist in healthy, aerated soil. (independent.com)
  • These can be used directly as mulch or composted, whereupon a cadre of other microbes convert the stockpiled nitrogen to make a nutrient-rich soil amendment. (independent.com)
  • Because nitrogen (N) comprises fully 16% of protein, neither we, other animals, nor plants grow and survive unless roots extract it from the soil. (pnas.org)
  • When released to soil, small amounts of nitrogen oxides may evaporate into air. (cdc.gov)
  • Most stubble fields are deficient in available soil nitrogen (N) and residual soil N levels are often less than 30 lb/acre in the surface two feet of soil. (usask.ca)
  • Next up is #KBSLTER Fellow @XinyiTuSoil , studying methods to improve # nitrogen synchrony, looking at a variety of soil parameters. (twitter.com)
  • Conventional wisdom believes nitrogen for plants starts in the air and is converted by microbes in the soil into a usable form. (npr.org)
  • The abnormal amount of rainfall this summer could also affect nitrogen amounts still in the soil. (uga.edu)
  • Nitrogen in the form of ammonium can be absorbed onto the surfaces of clay particles in the soil. (factbites.com)
  • The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of re-seeding of cropland using minimum tillage and conventional tillage methods on crop uptake of nitrogen, soil nitrate-N concentration, nitrate concentration in shallow ground water underlying the field, and the relationships between these matrices. (slideshare.net)
  • Jorge Delgado , with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit in Fort Collins, Colo., conducts research to help growers determine exactly how much nitrogen to apply to a field, when to apply it and what alternatives might work best. (usda.gov)
  • Decomposition releases a form of nitrogen into the soil that plants can use. (prezi.com)
  • As such, crops pull nitrogen out of the soil each season, leaving it depleted after harvest. (mercola.com)
  • Traditional agriculture techniques, such as composting crop waste and applying animal manure, naturally help to cycle usable nitrogen back into the soil. (mercola.com)
  • In nature, nitrogen is most commonly fixed by certain types of soil-dwelling bacteria . (everything2.com)
  • Other plants get nitrogen from the soil by absorption at their roots in the form of either nitrate ions or ammonium ions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • During nitrification, nitrogen trapped in the sediments, primarily resulting from decaying algae, gets converted into a chemical form (nitrate) that can be transported out of the lake by flowing groundwater. (usgs.gov)
  • 3. Objectives  Characterize nitrogen inputs, outputs and underlying GW nitrate concentration in a typical manured field over the aquifer. (slideshare.net)
  • But in the early 1900s, a German chemist developed synthetic nitrate, which is the form of nitrogen plants use. (mercola.com)
  • but over time, excess nitrogen is mineralized as nitrate, which then leaches into water. (mercola.com)
  • 2009). Nitrogen-nitrate contamination can have adverse human affects including methemoglobinemia or ―blue-baby‖ syndrome (Majumdar, 2003). (repec.org)
  • A nationwide survey conducted by EPA showed that 1.2 percent of community and 2.4 percent of private drinking water wells exceeded the 10 parts per million (ppm) nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) standard. (ndsu.edu)
  • A new target has been set in the revised version of the Sustainable Development Strategy in 2016: a maximum nitrogen surplus of 70 kg per hectare in average for the years 2028 to 2032 (BReg 2016). (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • Teijin Engineering has developed a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) denitration device for midsized ship engines to ensure compliance with the Tier III nitrogen oxides emissions regulation, which goes into effect in 2016. (environmentalleader.com)
  • million tons, a reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions (as compared with 1990 levels) of more than three million tons, and nearly 100 percent program compliance. (britannica.com)
  • Vitousek says: "We need to look at the nitrogen problem rather as Europe has looked at acid rain, by determining critical loads of nitrogen beyond which individual ecosystems become damaged, and then finding ways to cut back emissions to protect them. (newscientist.com)
  • The agency says it will reduce summertime emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from power plants that contribute to downwind ozone problems in the eastern half of the US. (environmentalleader.com)
  • This paper provides an economic analysis of the most cost-effective ways to intervene in the nitrogen cycle to reduce nitrogen emissions from industry. (wri.org)
  • The study claims to be the first to trace the flow of nitrogen emissions along international trade routes. (yahoo.com)
  • Based on a global trade database of 188 countries, the study showed the bulk of nitrogen emissions in 2010 came from industry and agriculture, which accounted for 161 teragrams (trillion grammes), while 28 Tg was produced by consumers -- mainly from sewage. (yahoo.com)
  • EEA-32 emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO X ) have decreased by 41% between 1990 and 2009. (europa.eu)
  • All organisms require nitrogen to live. (newscientist.com)
  • Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for all living organisms. (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • In living organisms, nitrogen serves many very important functions. (reference.com)
  • Typically nitrogen must combine with other elements to be utilized successfuly in other organisms. (reference.com)
  • The fate and transport of nitrogen are critically important issues for human and aquatic ecosystem health because discharging nitrogen-contaminated groundwater can cause harmful algal blooms , foul drinking water, kill fish and other aquatic organisms, release toxins, and diminish the aesthetic and recreational value of lakes and streams. (usgs.gov)
  • Nitrogen is used by living organisms to produce a number of complex organic molecules like amino acids , proteins , and nucleic acids . (factbites.com)
  • Nitrogen is important to all living things because it helps build new cells for organisms. (prezi.com)
  • Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nitrogen cycle is of particular interest to ecologists because nitrogen availability can affect the rate of key ecosystem processes, including primary production and decomposition . (wikipedia.org)
  • A simple diagram of the nitrogen cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The processes in the nitrogen cycle is to transform nitrogen from one form to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagram alongside shows how these processes fit together to form the nitrogen cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then discover the importance of nitrogen, essential for amino acids and nucleotides, and learn about the nitrogen cycle! (youtube.com)
  • Until recently nobody considered these various elements of human influence on the nitrogen cycle together. (newscientist.com)
  • This paper discusses how humans have altered the nitrogen cycle and suggests strategies for the efficient and equitable use of nitrogen. (wri.org)
  • The breakthroughs include a successful nitrogen cycle experiment conducted by the Yuanwei Shiyan ("on-site experiment") deep-sea elevator, a research device that is lowered with an anchor and was developed by the Institute of Deep-Sea Science and Engineering of CAS. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • This means that, theoretically, nitrogen would remain in its diatomic state in the Earth's mantle but would disassociate into a fluid metal in or just above the core, which potentially has implications for our understanding of the planet's deep nitrogen cycle," said Lobanov, who was at Stony Brook University when the research was conducted. (eurekalert.org)
  • What is the aquarium nitrogen cycle? (reference.com)
  • An aquarium's nitrogen cycle is the process a new aquarium undergoes to establish bacterial colonies, according to About.com. (reference.com)
  • The nitrogen cycle reveals the harmonious coordination between different biotic and abiotic elements. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The five-year average of nitrogen surplus per hectare of utilized agricultural land has decreased by 15 % since 1993. (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • However, the nitrogen balance indicates that only half of the total nitrogen input is removed by agricultural products ( BMEL 2019 , in German only ). (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • 70% of the nitrogen comes from agricultural use, 21% from motor vehicles and power stations, and most of the rest from biological nitrogen fixing from plants like legumes: peas, beans, lentils and the like. (earthtimes.org)
  • Dynamic Optimization of Nitrogen Use in Agriculture ," Faculty Series 96032, University of Georgia, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics. (repec.org)
  • Your opportunity to sponsor the NITROGEN North America 2019! (cvent.com)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the EPA have not classified nitrogen oxides for potential carcinogenicity. (cdc.gov)
  • In Germany problems occur especially in regions with high livestock density: Due to the high amount of farm manure in the form of animal excrements, often more nitrogen is applied to the fields as the crops can convert into biomass. (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • Purpose A two- year study was initiated in 2009 to study the fate and transport of nitrogen from dairy manure when applied to cropland that was reseeded to grass for silage production. (slideshare.net)
  • Delgado also has published a peer-reviewed report in Advances in Agronomy showing how the NTT may be used to calculate the potential for nitrogen trading on a Virginia no-till operation, an Ohio farm where manure is applied, and irrigated barley and potato fields in Colorado. (usda.gov)
  • We do not know if exposure to nitrogen oxides will result in reproductive effects in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Children would probably be affected by exposure to nitrogen oxides in the same ways as adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to nitrogen mustard liquid is more likely to produce second- and third- degree burns and later scarring than is exposure to nitrogen mustard vapor. (cdc.gov)
  • Quickly moving to an area where fresh air is available is highly effective in reducing the possibility of death from exposure to nitrogen mustard. (cdc.gov)
  • 1-224) reported a slight reduction in vital capacity and maximum respiratory volume in 70 men exposed to 0.4- to 2.7-ppm concentrations of the oxides of nitrogen six to eight hours daily for four to six years. (cdc.gov)
  • Previous studies focused on the nitrogen in acid rain that falls well away from urban and suburban sources, but the new study shows substantially more nitrogen -- largely in gaseous form -- being deposited near highways and other urban sources. (newswise.com)
  • Nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, are essential for plant and animal growth and nourishment, but the overabundance of certain nutrients in water can cause several adverse health and ecological effects. (usgs.gov)
  • UAN ) , which deals only in nitrogen-based nutrients, too climbed 36% because of higher volumes and prices. (aol.com)
  • Nitrogen is clearly proving to be more profitable than other nutrients. (aol.com)
  • Even in its retail division (which is also its largest), crop nutrients, particularly nitrogen, contribute the most to its top line. (aol.com)
  • A recent scientific study shows new, important information about how groundwater cannot only contribute nutrients such as nitrogen to lakes, but can also carry it away. (usgs.gov)
  • Nitrogen is one of 16 essential plant nutrients. (uga.edu)
  • High-yielding crop varieties, such as corn, require large amounts of primary nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. (repec.org)
  • Utilization of primary nutrients has increased by more than 300% while that of nitrogen alone has increased by more than 600% between 1960 and 2007 (USDA, 2009). (repec.org)
  • Figures for 2002 show that compared with 2001, the nitrogen and phosphate production dropped most sharply (by 10 percent) in North Brabant and Limburg, provinces with a lot of intensive livestock farming. (cbs.nl)
  • Of course, nitrogen is used in agriculture to grow crops, and on many farms the landscape has been greatly modified to maximize farming output. (usgs.gov)
  • As the world struggles to boost crop yields, "the amount of industrially fixed nitrogen applied to crops during the decade 1980 to 1990 more than equals all that applied previously in human history", says Vitousek, whose study will be published in full in the journal Ecological Applications in August. (newscientist.com)
  • Farmers are therefore using nitrogen more efficiently, the area of cultivation of high-output crops has increased and feed conversion by domestic animals has improved. (umweltbundesamt.de)
  • An average of 40% of the nitrogen fertiliser applied to crops isn't utilised and could be lost. (twitter.com)
  • But this "quick fix" comes at a steep price, as the nitrogen that helps some crops to grow is causing untold amounts of environmental damage. (mercola.com)
  • The instability of NI 3 and NI 3 · NH 3 can be attributed to the large steric strain caused by the three large iodine atoms being held in proximity to each other around the relatively tiny nitrogen atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heterocyclic derivatives containing one or more nitrogen atoms are exceedingly common in a large variety of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical intermediates. (google.com)
  • Calculations indicate that at extreme pressures and temperatures, such as those found deep inside Earth, nitrogen should transform from an insulating--or non-electrically conductive--diatomic molecule to a metallic--or electrically conductive--fluid polymer, comprised of atoms linked by complex molecular bonds. (eurekalert.org)
  • In contrast, trees growing nearby on rocks that didn't contain nitrogen contained a lot less of the stuff. (npr.org)
  • The extremely strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (N≡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after carbon monoxide (CO), dominates nitrogen chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • About half the world's population depends on the nitrogen in fertilisers to live, according to Dr Mark Sutton, of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology in a ground-breaking new report on the impact of nitrogen as a pollutant: European Nitrogen Assessment (ENA), unveiled at a conference in Edinburgh this week. (earthtimes.org)
  • His efforts to reduce nitrogen losses in Mexico also have been published in the journal Terra Latinoamerica . (usda.gov)
  • As a result, most efforts to reduce nitrogen have targeted these sources. (newswise.com)
  • The fate and transport of nitrogen are critically important issues for human and aquatic ecosystem health. (usgs.gov)
  • Monitoring studies conducted at national and state levels show that nitrogen (N) concentrations in groundwater exceed health standards more often than other common contaminants, such as pesticides. (ndsu.edu)
  • Prolonged or repeated exposures to nitrogen mustards have caused cancer in animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Some evidence exists that prolonged or repeated exposures to nitrogen mustards cause leukemia in humans. (cdc.gov)