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  • mice
  • Only the MBD2 cell lines were highly tumorigenic and invasive when injected into Nude mice while also showing a remarkable ability to invade and degrade bone tissue when injected into the tibia of SCID mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subcutaneous tumorigenicity assays in NU/NU mice were used to observe tumorigenicity of riboflavin-depleted HEK293T cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Moreover, we observed enhanced subcutaneous tumorigenicity in NU/NU mice following injection of riboflavin-depleted compared with normal HEK293T cells (55.6% compared with 0.0% tumor formation, respectively). (deepdyve.com)
  • progression
  • For comparison, in quiescent cells, all four of the inhibitors of cell cycle progression tested (anti-Ras, anti-cyclin D1, serum removal, and cycloheximide) became ineffective at essentially the same point in G 1 phase, approximately 4 h prior to the beginning of DNA synthesis. (asm.org)
  • This point of commitment to cell cycle progression, termed the restriction point, is generally observed several hours before the initiation of S phase. (asm.org)
  • Indeed, it has been proposed that a change in cell volume acts as an immediate signal that impinges on the apoptotic death process ( 7 , 13 , 18 , 39 , 47 , 48 , 58 , 73 ) as well as on progression through the cell cycle ( 36 - 38 ). (physiology.org)
  • In contrast, in HepG2 human liver cells, riboflavin depletion leads to an unfolded protein/stress response (14) and interferes with normal progression of the cell cycle (15-17), likely affecting the expression of regulatory genes at both the transcriptional and proteomic levels (18). (deepdyve.com)
  • recipient
  • To extend these studies to cycling cells, a time-lapse approach was used to determine the approximate cell cycle position of individual cells in an asynchronous culture at the time of inhibitor treatment and then to determine the effects of the inhibitor upon recipient cells. (asm.org)
  • whereas
  • Based on these results, we conclude that ligand-dependent activation of PDGFR-β and its downstream effectors Akt, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 is strongly modulated (inhibited) by hyperosmotic cell shrinkage, whereas cell swelling does not seem to affect the activation of the receptor but rather to activate ERK1/2 via a different mechanism. (physiology.org)
  • proliferation
  • Indeed, since the overall length of the cell cycle appears to depend in large part on the length of the G 1 phase, it is likely that this cell cycle period must be compressed as much as possible for rapid proliferation, potentially requiring the transfer of activities present in the G 1 phase of quiescent cells to other cell cycle periods when they continuously cycle ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Signaling in cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis is highly affected by osmotic stress and changes in cell volume, although the mechanisms underlying the significance of cell volume as a signal in cell growth and death are poorly understood. (physiology.org)
  • Increasing evidence now supports the conclusion that signaling in cell volume control cooperates with signaling in cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis. (physiology.org)
  • As discussed by Hoffmann and Ussing ( 27 ), the term "volume regulation" may lead to the misconception that cells have one preferred volume, which is not the case since the "preferred" volume may highly depend on the differential and functional state of the cell, such as in secreting epithelia ( 21 , 27 ) and in cells during growth and proliferation per se. (physiology.org)
  • Therefore, it is important to identify the level of cross-talk between signaling pathways in cell volume regulation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis to understand the potential role of changes in cell volume as a direct signal controlling cell growth and death in tissue homeostasis and developmental processes. (physiology.org)
  • Biology
  • To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, we've highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. (thermofisher.com)
  • Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802. (asm.org)
  • The Journal of Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • assays
  • Several assays revealed that the MBD2 cell lines, but not the mutant nor the control cell lines, were transformed and highly invasive in cell culture. (aacrjournals.org)
  • restriction
  • The restriction point is thus defined as the last point at which positive proliferative signals are required for completion of the cell cycle. (asm.org)
  • promoters
  • We also observed that riboflavin depletion decreased intracellular riboflavin levels by 20% and upregulated expression of riboflavin transporter genes, particularly SLC52A3, and that the changes in CREPT and SLC52A3 correlated with specific epigenetic changes in their promoters in riboflavin-depleted HEK293T cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • formation
  • These cells are highly contact inhibited and are sensitive to sarcoma virus focus formation and leukaemia virus propagation. (abcam.com)
  • treatment
  • Cycloheximide treatment, like anti-cyclin D1 microinjection, was inhibitory throughout G 1 phase (which lasts a total of 4 to 5 h in these cells). (asm.org)
  • However
  • However, we still know little as to the function of a change in cell volume as a direct signal in the regulation of these cellular parameters. (physiology.org)
  • However, excessive production of ROS kills cancer cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • detail
  • the mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of a constant cell volume under "resting" conditions and for the cell's capability of counteracting volume perturbation by volume recovery processes have been described in a wide variety of cells and have been studied in detail for many years ( 23 , 26 , 36 ). (physiology.org)
  • medium
  • Cells were cultured in medium supplemented with 50 ng/ml TPA (phorbol, 12-myristate, 13 acetate) for 2 hours at 37°C immediately prior to harvesting. (abcam.com)
  • Methods HEK293T and NIH3T3 cells were cultured in riboflavin-deficient or riboflavin-sufficient medium and passaged every 48 h. (deepdyve.com)
  • levels
  • 2-fold, resulting in cyclin D1 and CDK4 levels being increased ∼1.5-fold, and cell cycle acceleration. (deepdyve.com)
  • novel
  • Novel techniques were used to determine when in the cell cycle of proliferating NIH 3T3 cells cellular Ras and cyclin D1 are required. (asm.org)
  • Kinetic analysis and a novel dual-labeling technique were used to confirm the differences in cell cycle requirements for Ras, cyclin D1, and cycloheximide. (asm.org)
  • cycle
  • While results obtained with quiescent cells are important, there is reason to believe the situation might be different for cells continuously progressing through the cell cycle. (asm.org)
  • mechanism
  • Autophagy usually serves as a survival mechanism in response to stress conditions, but excessive induction of autophagy results in cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
  • likely
  • It is thus likely that cell swelling via activation of ERK1/2 and cell shrinkage via activation of the p38 and JNK pathway and inhibition of the PDGFR signaling pathway may act as key players in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. (physiology.org)