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  • apical dendritic
  • These results confirm the hypothesis that the broad spikes of MG cells originate in the soma and propagate through the molecular layer in the apical dendritic tree, and suggest the possibility that this backpropagation may contribute to `boosting' of the synaptic response in distal apical dendrites in certain circumstances. (biologists.org)
  • currents
  • Voltage-clamp recordings of neurons located in the NL showed the presence of large Ca 2+ currents of two types, a low voltage-activated, fast inactivating Ni 2+ sensitive channel resembling mammalian T-type channels, and a high voltage-activated, slowly inactivating Cd 2+ sensitive channel. (physiology.org)
  • Because of the potential importance of VGCC to excitability and Ca 2+ -dependent regulation of dendrite structure in NL, we studied Ca 2+ currents using voltage-clamp and dendritic Ca 2+ signaling using two-photon microscopy. (physiology.org)
  • and two synaptic currents, I S and I D . An action potential occurs whenever the membrane potential reaches the firing threshold ( V θ ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Longer time scale mechanisms, such as NMDA-mediated currents and dendritic calcium events, could conceivably aid in this process, as well as engage synaptic plasticity mechanisms to modify the network at the levels of both afferent CA3 terminals and the local interneuron plexus ( Spruston, 2008 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • 1996
  • The notion of non-homogeneous neurons with interacting spatially diverse active responses challenges the classical view of orthodromic information flow, but this concept has become widely accepted during the last decade ( Yuste and Tank, 1996 ). (biologists.org)
  • transients
  • Sorensen and Rubel 2006 ), leading to the suggestion that activity-dependent Ca 2+ transients could mediate such fine-tuning of dendritic properties. (physiology.org)
  • nucleus
  • Thalamocortical relay cells excite inhibitory neurons of the adjacent reticular nucleus. (hindawi.com)
  • Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were obtained from LSO neurons in a brain slice preparation, and IPSCs were evoked by electrical stimulation of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), a known glycinergic projection in adult animals. (jneurosci.org)
  • vitro
  • Using this technique in an ` in vitro ' interface slice preparation, we found that following either parallel fiber stimulation or an orthogonal field stimulus, a sink appeared in the ganglionic layer and propagated into the molecular layer. (biologists.org)
  • induce
  • However, although optical activation of ChR2 has been suitable to induce population activity in a large number of neurons, directed, efficient, and fast stimulation of single cells has not been feasible. (pnas.org)
  • spontaneous
  • Interestingly, the presence of the low-threshold Ca 2+ current, I T in a postsynaptic neuron allows the robust detection of inhibitory drive over a certain range of spontaneous and driven activity, a range that can be extended by the presence of the hyperpolarization-activated cation conductance, I sag . (jneurosci.org)
  • Thalamus
  • They are generated in the thalamus through alternating excitation of relay cells and reticular neurons (Figure 1(b) ). (hindawi.com)
  • Thalamocortical
  • To test for such potential differences, especially in the context of the function of thalamocortical (TC) relay nuclei, we used a stochastic "integrate-and-fire-or-burst" TC neuron model to quantify the detectability of excitatory and inhibitory drive in the presence and absence of the low-threshold Ca 2+ current, I T , and the hyperpolarization-activated cation conductance, I sag . (jneurosci.org)
  • stimulation
  • Pairing a weak burst of synaptic stimulation with a brief dendritic BDNF application caused an immediate and robust induction of LTP. (jove.com)
  • Artificial stimulation and inhibition of neuronal activity has applications ranging from fundamental neurobiology questions ( 1 - 4 ) to potential clinical treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Yet the recent development of genetic techniques for sensitizing neurons to optical stimulation ( 7 - 12 ) and silencing ( 13 - 16 ) have, for the first time, provided cell type-specific control of neuronal activity, which has been successfully used to address significant biological questions ( 1 - 3 , 17 - 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • However
  • 11 12 However, if the gerbil is subjected to 1 or 2 brief episodes (eg, 2 minutes) of ischemia before a more severe insult, there is approximately 60% to 90% protection of CA1 neurons. (ahajournals.org)
  • frequency
  • Vertebrates detect the location of low-frequency sound sources in the horizontal plane by contrasting the arrival times of electrical signals relayed from each ear to a set of coincidence detector neurons in the brain stem. (physiology.org)