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  • Innervation
  • Location and numbers of neurons associated with sympathetic innervation of the heart within the right stellate and accessory cervical ganglia, the spinal cord, and spinal ganglia were investigated using horseradish peroxidase retrograde axonal transport techniques in cats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • synaptic transmission
  • This finding, together with previous evidence that type II afferents respond weakly to synaptic transmission from cochlear hair cells, and normally are insensitive to sound, supports the identification of type II afferents as cochlear nociceptors, mediating the sensation of painfully loud sound. (pnas.org)
  • Bathing solutions containing low Ca2+ eliminated synaptic transmission in the slices but failed to block the excitatory effects of L-glutamate for the majority of the neurons tested. (jneurosci.org)
  • inhibition
  • The neurocircuitry that mediates arterial baroreflex-mediated inhibition of RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons and sympathetic vasomotor outflow is described by a trisynaptic model, which includes N -methyl- d -aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-mediated activation of propriomedullary GABAergic neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla ( 6 , 8 ). (physiology.org)
  • Such a scheme may also be applicable in the case of CCK-induced inhibition of RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons ( 21 ). (physiology.org)
  • It is suggested that during movements of the hindleg, activation of sciatic sensory fibres leads to re-patterning of neuronal activity in RVLM neurons via inhibition of visceral sensory inputs. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Sciatico-vagal inhibition is likely to affect the activity of those RVLM neurons that modulate higher neuronal activities via ascending projections. (gla.ac.uk)
  • sympathetic
  • These afferent neurons are CGRP-immunoreactive, and are believed to mediate the spinal reflex pathways to the sympathetic preganglionic neurons, and hence play a significant role in the pathogenesis of NDO. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In accord with its effects on sympathetic vasomotor outflow, CCK selectively inhibits the discharge of a subpopulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) presympathetic neurons ( 17 , 18 ). (physiology.org)
  • RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons are considered to play a major role in the generation of sympathetic vasomotor outflow, control of sympathetic cardiovascular reflexes, and arterial blood pressure ( 3 , 8 ). (physiology.org)
  • Cardiopulmonary sympathetic afferent input to lower thoracic spinal neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Terminals
  • To determine the specific VTA neuronal targets of VP afferents and their sensitivity to mu opioid receptor agonists, we virally expressed channel rhodopsin (ChR2) in rat VP neurons and optogenetically activated their terminals in the VTA. (jneurosci.org)
  • Light activation of VP neuron terminals elicited GABAergic IPSCs in both dopamine (DA) and non-DA VTA neurons, and these IPSCs were inhibited by the mu opioid receptor agonist DAMGO. (jneurosci.org)
  • rostral ventrol
  • Systemic administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) inhibits a subpopulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) presympathetic vasomotor neurons. (physiology.org)
  • We have recently shown that sensory vagal and somato-sensory (sciatic nerve) inputs converge in neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata, which was implicated in adjusting visceral activities to changing somatic performances. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Projections
  • After the cobalt ions were precipitated and intensified, we studied the central projections of the filled neurons within the ganglionic structures. (uncg.edu)
  • Our description of the central projections of the hair afferents is the first in the literature. (uncg.edu)
  • The efferent projections (axonal output) of HSD2 neurons have been investigated to a significant degree using conventional neuroanatomical tracers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional information about the efferent projections of HSD2 neurons can be found in ref. (wikipedia.org)
  • cochlear
  • Here, we show that type II afferents are excited during cochlear tissue damage in part by the algogenic cytoplasmic metabolite adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (pnas.org)
  • The remaining thin, unmyelinated type II afferents extend hundreds of microns along the cochlear duct to contact many outer hair cells. (pnas.org)
  • The elegantly coiled, mechanically tuned cochlear duct and functional differentiation between inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs), afferent and efferent neuronal connections are among the features that enable the widest acoustic frequency range and most complex vocalizations among vertebrate species. (pnas.org)
  • This benefit, however, has been gained at a significant cost in the metabolic and mechanical vulnerability of cochlear hair cells and neurons. (pnas.org)
  • One type of mechanically sensitive ion channel activates specialized sensory cells, such as cochlear hair cells and some touch sensory neurons, in response to forces applied to proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • insensitive
  • Despite this extensive arbor, type II afferents are weakly activated by outer hair cell transmitter release and are insensitive to sound. (pnas.org)
  • Neurons insensitive to L-glutamate were more broadly distributed, with a number being located in laminae III-V. Kynurenic acid, 2-amino-4- phosphonobutyric acid, and 2,3-piperidine dicarboxylic acid selectively antagonized rapid, short-lasting synaptic components of the dorsal cord potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • mechanical
  • These neurons also respond to mechanical distention. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Laminae I and II are sent information from afferent neurons that sense nociception, temperature, and itching, laminae III and IV are sent information from neurons that sense mechanical pressure, and laminae V and VI are sent information from proprioceptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signal Transduction
  • To better define non-spiking neuron signal transmission and signal transduction, many experiments have been performed to qualify and quantify the fidelity, speed, and mechanics of signal transmission in non-spiking neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulate
  • A neuron in the brain requires a single signal to a neuromuscular junction to stimulate contraction of the postsynaptic muscle cell. (wikipedia.org)