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  • Spinal
  • Spinal motor neurons are specified to innervate different muscle targets through combinatorial programs of transcription factor expression. (wright.edu)
  • Methods We performed Bayesian MUNE paired with histological counts of motor neurons in the lumbar spinal cord of wild-type mice and transgenic SOD1G93A mice that show progressive weakness over time. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Results In wild-type mice, the motor unit number in the gastrocnemius muscle estimated by Bayesian MUNE was approximately half the number of motor neurons in the region of the spinal cord that contains the cell bodies of the motor neurons supplying the hindlimb crural flexor muscles. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Conclusion The number of motor neurons in the spinal cord of wild-type mice is proportional to the number of motor units estimated by Bayesian MUNE. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In SOD1G93A mice, there is a lower number of estimated motor units compared to the number of spinal cord motor neurons at the end-stage of disease, and this is associated with disruption of the neuromuscular junction. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Significance Our finding that the Bayesian MUNE method gives estimates of motor unit numbers that are proportional to the numbers of motor neurons in the spinal cord supports the clinical use of Bayesian MUNE in monitoring motor unit loss in ALS patients. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • wild type
  • Our data show that wild-type astrocyte-conditioned medium significantly increases the number of Olig2+/Hb9- progenitors, which subsequently differentiate into Hb9+/Islet1+ post-mitotic motor neurons. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • nearby neurons
  • Experiments with conventional tracers and immunofluorescence staining have demonstrated peripheral viscerosensory input from the vagus nerve, input from nearby neurons in the NTS and area postrema, and descending input from the medial central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). (wikipedia.org)
  • The faster a biological neuron fires, the faster nearby neurons accumulate electrical potential (or lose electrical potential, depending on the "weighting" of the dendrite that connects to the neuron that fired). (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Scientists working in „connectomics", a research field occupied with the reconstruction of neuronal networks in the brain, are aiming at completely mapping of the millions or billions of neurons found in mammalian brains. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • The presence of nuclear c-Fos implies recent, elevated neuronal activity, and c-Fos disappears after neurons become quiescent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parts of the fly brain have neuroplasticity but the H1 and other tangential neurons are hardwired neuronal machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of spindle neurons in diverse whale species has led to the suggestion that they are "a possible obligatory neuronal adaptation in very large brains, permitting fast information processing and transfer along highly specific projections and that evolved in relation to emerging social behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuronal volumes of ACC spindle neurons were larger in humans and bonobos (Pan paniscus) than the spindle neurons of the common chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BN concept reproduces at the level of single generic neuron the requirement, which is necessary for the feature binding to occur, and which was formulated earlier at the level of large-scale neuronal assemblies. (wikipedia.org)
  • mirror neurons
  • A system of "mirror neurons" located in various parts of human and animal brains have been identified that become activated equally well when people do something such as wave their hand or smile, and when they simply observe those things being done. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Because mirror neurons do not discriminate between performed and viewed actions, they are very likely the neurological means through which animals (including people) are able to recognize the intentions of other animals. (mentalhelp.net)
  • For example, a set of mirror neurons will activate when you smile, and also when you observe someone else smiling. (mentalhelp.net)
  • The fact that the mirror neurons fire when you observe someone else smiling helps you to relate what you are seeing to your own experience of smiling, and thus you are able to infer what the other person is likely to be feeling when they smile at you. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Mirror neurons are likely to be the basis for people's instinctual ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions, and perhaps even more significantly, to imitate and match those expressions. (mentalhelp.net)
  • For example, people with autism's mirror neurons were found to be less active than were people without autism's when both watched an image of a hand waving on a video screen. (mentalhelp.net)
  • It is not possible to say that mirror neuron system dysfunction is the 'cause' of people with autism's problems at this time, but it certainly appears that mirror neurons play an important role in creating autistic problems. (mentalhelp.net)
  • In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons has been found in the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex and the inferior parietal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • They argue that mirror neurons may be important for understanding the actions of other people, and for learning new skills by imitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers speculate that mirror systems may simulate observed actions, and thus contribute to theory of mind skills, while others relate mirror neurons to language abilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study published in March 2005 Iacoboni and his colleagues reported that mirror neurons could discern whether another person who was picking up a cup of tea planned to drink from it or clear it from the table. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, Iacoboni has argued that mirror neurons are the neural basis of the human capacity for emotions such as empathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are scientists who express skepticism about the theories being advanced to explain the function of mirror neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • mirror neurons are an exciting, intriguing discovery - but when you see them mentioned in the media, remember that most of the research on these cells has been conducted in monkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subject of mirror neurons continues to generate intense debate. (wikipedia.org)
  • While these papers reported the presence of mirror neurons responding to hand actions, a subsequent study by Pier Francesco Ferrari and colleagues described the presence of mirror neurons responding to mouth actions and facial gestures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reports on mirror neurons have been widely published and confirmed with mirror neurons found in both inferior frontal and inferior parietal regions of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, evidence from functional neuroimaging strongly suggests that humans have similar mirror neurons systems: researchers have identified brain regions which respond during both action and observation of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • brains
  • As a rule the density of neurons is lower in larger brains, a fact which is explained in a qualitative way by the larger size of the neurons in the larger animal (see chapter 34). (springer.com)
  • All animal brains are made up of neurons. (amnh.org)
  • Spindle neurons are found in two very restricted regions in the brains of hominids-the family of species comprising humans and other great apes-the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the fronto-insular cortex (FI). (wikipedia.org)
  • The appearance of spindle neurons in distantly related clades suggests that they represent convergent evolution, specifically an adaptation to larger brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spindle neurons are relatively large cells that may allow rapid communication across the relatively large brains of great apes, elephants, and cetaceans. (wikipedia.org)
  • p. 254 Their presence in the brains of these species supports this theory, pointing towards the existence of these specialized neurons only in highly intelligent mammals, and may be an example of convergent evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the rat, pioneer neurons are only present in prenatal brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • synapses
  • Although some of the neuron to neuron synapses occur at the perikaryon, the majority of them are found at the dendrites, which account for 80 to 90 percent of the surface area of your garden variety neuron. (infoplease.com)
  • Contrary to the density of synapses which, as we shall see, does not vary much from animal to animal and from place to place in the same brain, the number of neurons per unit volume varies a great deal. (springer.com)
  • The matter was finally resolved in 1950s with the development of electron microscopy by which it was unambiguously demonstrated that nerve cells were individual cells interconnected through synapses to form a nervous system, thereby validating the neuron theory. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • A command neuron is a single neuron (or small set of neurons) whose stimulation results in the evocation of an endogenous , specific, naturally occurring behavior pattern (Carew, 2000). (wikipedia.org)
  • They suggested that for any neuron to qualify as a command neuron, its activity had to be both necessary and sufficient for the initiation of the behavior it was purported to command. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fifty years of command neurons: the neurobiology of escape behavior in the crayfish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media Phase resetting in neurons is a behavior observed in different biological oscillators and plays a role in creating neural synchronization as well as different processes within the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phase resetting in neurons is when the dynamical behavior of an oscillation is shifted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shifts in phase (or behavior of neurons) caused due to a perturbation (an external stimulus) can be quantified within a Phase Response Curve (PRC) to predict synchrony in coupled and oscillating neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • These effects can be computed, in the case of advances or delays to responses, to observe the changes in the oscillatory behavior of neurons, pending on when a stimulus was applied in the phase cycle of an oscillating neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PRC assumes certain patterns of behavior in firing pattern as well as the network of oscillating neurons to model the oscillations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the initial anatomical and physiological characterizations of H1 in 1976, study of the neuron has greatly benefited the understanding of neural coding in a wide range of organisms, especially the relationship between the neural code and behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the neuron "mirrors" the behavior of the other, as though the observer were itself acting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interneurons
  • The term command neuron first appeared in a 1964 paper "Interneurons Commanding Swimmeret Movements in the Crayfish" by CAG Wiersma and K Ikeda in volume 12 of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology vol 12 on pp 509-525. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dendritic arbor of the H1 neuron covers the anterior surface of the lobula plate, where it receives retinotopic input from interneurons of the medulla lobula. (wikipedia.org)
  • body's
  • The body's neurons, plus the glial cells that give them structural and metabolic support, together constitute the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hormones provide the GnRH neurons with information about the body's status to help determine whether reproduction should be prioritized or suppressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • The study of neuron synchrony could provide information on the differences that occur in neural states such as normal and diseased states. (wikipedia.org)
  • The observation that spindle neurons only occur in a highly significant group of animals (from a human point of view) has led to speculation that they are of great importance in human evolution and/or brain function. (wikipedia.org)
  • temporal
  • Brain Teaser: Ready to stimulate those neurons in your temporal lobes? (sharpbrains.com)
  • Binocular neurons appear in the striate cortex (V1), the prestriate cortex (V2), the ventral extrastriate area (V4), the dorsal extrastriate area (V5/MT), medial superior temporal area, caudal intraparietal area, and a collection of areas in the anterior inferior temporal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binocular neurons in both the medial superior temporal area and dorsal extrastriate area (V5/MT) respond to surface depth sparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • clarification needed] On one hand, the anticorrelated response of the binocular neurons in the striate cortex (V1), the prestriate cortex (V2), dorsal extrastriate area (V5/MT), and medial superior temporal area, all show similar responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the temporal integrator concept a neuron fires a spike after receiving a number of input impulses distributed in time. (wikipedia.org)
  • dorsal
  • Additionally, population responses of binocular neurons have been found in human ventral and dorsal pathways using fMRI. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binocular neurons in both the caudal intraparietal area and the dorsal extrastriate area (V5/MT) respond to surface slants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binocular neurons in the dorsal and ventral pathways combine to create depth perception, however, the two pathways perform differ in the type of stereo computation they perform. (wikipedia.org)
  • fires
  • A mirror neuron, or cubelli neuron, is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normally, more than single input impulse is necessary for exciting neuron up to the level when it fires and emits an output impulse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first one expects that a neuron fires a spike if a number of input impulses are received at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the process of creating new pathways and networks among brain cells enables us to absorb, learn, and memorize new information. (rochester.edu)
  • These findings demonstrate that microglia are a dynamic and integral component of the complex machinery that allows neurons to reorganize their connections in the healthy mature brain," said Grayson Sipe, a graduate student in Majewska's lab and co-author of the study. (rochester.edu)
  • If I wanted to limber up my neurons, doing so online seemed a good idea -- it required no special game-playing equipment, for example -- so I set out to test a few brain-training sites. (washingtonpost.com)
  • In another study focused on mirror neuron reactions to facial emotion, people without autism's mirror neuron systems and also their limbic systems (brain parts most responsible for emotion) became activated when they viewed pictures of people's emotional facial expressions. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Neurons aren't only found in the brain. (amnh.org)
  • A human brain may have as many as ________ connections between neurons. (amnh.org)
  • A human brain may contain as many as 100 billion neurons. (amnh.org)
  • Each neuron can connect to at least 1,000 other neurons, so a brain may have as many as 100 trillion connections! (amnh.org)
  • A human brain has 100 billion neurons. (amnh.org)
  • Which animal's brain has 1 billion neurons? (amnh.org)
  • A frog brain has about 16 million neurons. (amnh.org)
  • Nina is a neuroscientist who enlists the help of five Neurons (animated characters representing the senses) in her brain to answer a scientific question. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, neurons are generated by special types of stem cells during brain development and childhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons in the adult brain generally do not undergo cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flies possess two H1 neurons, one in each hemisphere of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allman and his colleagues have delved beyond the level of brain infrastructure to investigate how spindle neurons function at the superstructural level, focusing on their role as 'air traffic controllers' for emotions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroscientists such as Marco Iacoboni (UCLA) have argued that mirror neuron systems in the human brain help us understand the actions and intentions of other people. (wikipedia.org)
  • During each experiment, the researchers allowed the monkey to reach for pieces of food, and recorded from single neurons in the monkey's brain, thus measuring the neuron's response to certain movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pioneer neuron is a cell that is a derivative of the preplate in the early stages of corticogenesis of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH neurons, or Gonadotropin-releasing hormone expressing neurons, are the cells in the brain that control the release of reproductive hormones from the pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1989, two research groups independently discovered that GnRH neurons, which in adults are scattered throughout the hypothalamus, do not originate in this region of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This subset of cells migrates into the nasal placode, where they intermix with GnRH neurons born in this region, and migrate together into the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • On their journey from nose to brain, GnRH neurons pass through nasal tissue, the early skull, and move through several regions of the forebrain before reaching their destinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH neurons that fail to enter the brain, or that migrate to the wrong region, are not functional and can even undergo programmed cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • This failure of GnRH neurons to migrate into the brain is the main cause of Kallmann Syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • cortex
  • Pyramidal neuron located in the cerebral cortex of the hedgehog. (washington.edu)
  • Neurons located in the cerebral cortex of the hamster. (washington.edu)
  • Neurons in the prestriate cortex (V2) are more sensitive to different disparities than those in the striate cortex (V1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Binocular neurons in the striate cortex (V1) are only sensitive to absolute disparity, where in other visual cortical areas they are sensitive to relative disparity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the prestriate cortex (V2) and ventral extrastriate area (V4), binocular neurons respond most readily to a centre-surround stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1999, Professor John Allman, a neuroscientist, and colleagues at the California Institute of Technology first published a report on spindle neurons found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of hominids, but not in any other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few years later, the same group published another empirical paper, discussing the role of the mirror-neuron system in action recognition, and proposing that the human Broca's region was the homologue region of the monkey ventral premotor cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further experiments confirmed that about 10% of neurons in the monkey inferior frontal and inferior parietal cortex have "mirror" properties and give similar responses to performed hand actions and observed actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pioneer neurons settle in the marginal zone of the cortex and project to sub-cortical levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • subset
  • A subset of these neurons is thought to be involved in using the optic flow to estimate the parameters of self-motion, such as yaw, roll, and sideward translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, it was discovered that a subset of GnRH neurons can trace their origins not from the nasal placode, but from the neural crest earlier in embryogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • However, scientists are now beginning to appreciate that, in addition to serving as the brain's first line of defense, these cells also have a nurturing side, particularly as it relates to the connections between neurons. (rochester.edu)
  • Command decisions are increasingly seen as being governed by networks of interacting and redundant cells, not simply by single neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized cells called neurons allow you to think, feel, and move. (amnh.org)
  • In HSD2 neurons (and all other cells that express both HSD2 and MR), aldosterone binds to MR and translocates it from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, causing transcriptional changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike aldosterone-sensitive cells in epithelial tissues (e.g. in the kidney), the physiologic effects of aldosterone-MR activation in HSD2 neurons are unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astrocytes are star-shaped glial cells that have also been observed to turn into neurons by virtue of the stem cell characteristic pluripotency. (wikipedia.org)
  • The five basic classes of neurons within the retina are photoreceptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuron doctrine is the concept that the nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells, a discovery due to decisive neuro-anatomical work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and later presented by, among others, H. Waldeyer-Hartz. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term neuron (spelled neurone in British English) was itself coined by Waldeyer as a way of identifying the cells in question. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons are cells These individual units are cells as understood from other tissues in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike Cajal-Retzius cells, these neurons are reelin-negative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurocytology: Fine Structure of Neurons, Nerve Processes, and Neuroglial Cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most GnRH neurons are born from stem cells in the nasal placode (embryonic nasal tissue). (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulus
  • Leon Glass and Michael Mackey (1988) developed the theory behind limit cycle oscillators to observe the effects of perturbing oscillating neurons under the assumption the stimulus applied only affected the phase cycle and not the amplitude of response. (wikipedia.org)
  • H1 neurons are proven to be very efficient encoders of information via their high resilience to stimulus noise from external sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Soon, researchers were finding command neurons in multiple invertebrate and vertebrate species , including: crickets, cockroaches, lobsters, and certain fish . (wikipedia.org)
  • Such neurons have been directly observed in primate species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers
  • The researchers also pinpointed one of the key molecular mechanisms in this process and observed that when a single receptor - called P2Y12 - was turned off the microglia ceased removing the connections between neurons. (rochester.edu)
  • Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have developed a stem cell-based model in order to study the resilience and vulnerability of neurons in the neurodegenerative disease ALS. (news-medical.net)
  • excitable
  • All neurons are electrically excitable, due to maintenance of voltage gradients across their membranes by means of metabolically driven ion pumps, which combine with ion channels embedded in the membrane to generate intracellular-versus-extracellular concentration differences of ions such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurotransmitters
  • GnRH neurons receive input from classical neurotransmitters like glutamate and GABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to classical neurotransmitters, some guidance molecules can change the wiring of GnRH neurons to the portal capillary system, altering the strength of the signal to the pituitary gland GnRH neurons integrate information from the body to regulate reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • retina
  • The basic circuitry of the retina incorporates a three-neuron chain consisting of the photoreceptor (either a rod or cone), bipolar cell, and the ganglion cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • Most neurons lack centrioles in their somas, which is the other reason why scientists believed for so long that adult neurons didn't divide. (infoplease.com)
  • It is this conversion that allows computer scientists and mathematicians to simulate biological neural networks using artificial neurons which can output distinct values (often from −1 to 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have discovered how guidance molecules cause GnRH neurons to speed up or slow down. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The term "HSD2 neurons" is used in the scientific literature to refer to a subpopulation of neurons in the NTS which express both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2). (wikipedia.org)
  • ventral
  • On the other hand, binocular neurons in the ventral extrastriate area (V4) show weaker anticorrelated responses in comparison to the other areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • receive
  • As in flies, these neurons receive input from both eyes and are sensitive to optic flow rotations corresponding to movement of the flying insect's body, suggesting motion sensitive neurons are an essential component of optomotor responses throughout the insect kingdom. (wikipedia.org)
  • unlike
  • Unlike the endocrine system which communicates slowly, using hormones carried by the cardiovascular system, neurons must be able to communicate quickly ! (infoplease.com)
  • The basic nature of a neuron, unlike a phone cord, or a fiber-optic cable, involves only one-way transmission. (infoplease.com)
  • Unlike most artificial neurons, however, biological neurons fire in discrete pulses. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • Their lack of expression of the aforementioned markers suggests that HSD2 neurons form a unique subpopulation within the NTS. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • A neuron is a specialized type of cell found in the bodies of all eumetozoans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuron doctrine, as it became known, served to position neurons as special cases under the broader cell theory evolved some decades earlier. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many systems pioneer neurons are eliminated by programmed cell-death and are not present in the adult. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Neurons sensitive to motion during flight are not specific to flies, and have been found in numerous nondipterous insect groups including Odonata, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera. (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that some neurons responded when the monkey observed a person picking up a piece of food, and also when the monkey itself picked up the food. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Although the nucleus is usually a hotbed of activity, it is less so in neurons. (infoplease.com)
  • This relative lack of mirror neuron activity appears to impair people with autism's ability to automatically and instinctually intuit what other people are feeling, and to imitate them. (mentalhelp.net)
  • It has been suggested, but not proven, that aldosterone promotes the firing activity of these neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • BAFTA Scotland 2007 Awarded Best Children's Programme BAFTA Scotland 2008 Nominated as Best Children's Programme Composer: Scottish Composer Graham Ness There is a themed Nina & the Neurons activity trail at the Glasgow Science Centre. (wikipedia.org)
  • This activity pattern of neurons is a phenomenon seen in various neural circuits throughout the body and is seen in single neuron models and within clusters of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, no widely accepted neural or computational models have been put forward to describe how mirror neuron activity supports cognitive functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A binding neuron (BN) is an abstract mathematical model of the electrical activity of a neuron, closely related to well-known integrate-and-fire model. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shift to high frequency electrical activity in GnRH neurons is the signal that initiates puberty. (wikipedia.org)
  • sends
  • To respond to image motion, the H1 neuron sends action potentials of varying frequency to the contralateral lobula plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult
  • When GnRH neurons change their pattern of release from the juvenile to the adult pattern of GnRH secretion, puberty is initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • Critics believe that the less restrictive category of "command-like" neurons would repair the flaws in the overly strict Kupfermann and Weiss definition while more accurately classifying the role of single neurons in command decisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • amyotrophic
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a motor neuron disease with rampant progression and that it is typically fatal within 5 years of prognosis. (news-medical.net)
  • connections
  • We have long considered the reorganization of the brain's network of connections as solely the domain of neurons," said Ania Majewska, Ph.D. , an associate professor in the Department of Neuroscience at the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) and senior author of the study. (rochester.edu)
  • The microglia "pulled up" the appropriate connections, physically disconnecting one neuron from another, while leaving other important connections intact. (rochester.edu)
  • Yet, ironically, I can remember quite well the fact that as we age, some of the connections between our neurons begin to deteriorate. (washingtonpost.com)
  • But millions of new connections between neurons form with every new experience and everything you learn. (amnh.org)
  • Failure of GnRH neurons to form the proper connections, or failure to successfully stimulate the pituitary with GnRH, means that puberty is not initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • monkeys
  • A University of Tsukuba-led study of gaze fixation in monkeys and their refusal to redirect the gaze onto a target in return for a reward reveals that dopamine neurons are key to inhibiting preplanned actions. (news-medical.net)
  • study
  • An immediate-early gene, c-fos, has been used to study the activation and inactivation of HSD2 neurons extensively in vivo. (wikipedia.org)