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  • dopaminergic
  • Interestingly, this bursting behavior can be observed in dopaminergic (DA) neurons in ventral mid-brain which are related to Parkinson's disease when there is a loss in the amount of these DA and substantia nigra cells [ 12 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • PD is a neurodegenerative locomotor disorder with the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. (frontiersin.org)
  • pyramidal
  • Starting from a reduced threecompartment model of a single pyramidal neuron, we derive an observation model for dendritic dipole currents in extracellular space and thereby for the dendritic field potential that contributes to the local field potential of a neural population. (researchgate.net)
  • functional
  • It appears that we can update one aspect of a stimulus feature without completely altering the functional response property of a given neuron. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Once an approach based on the perspective and connectivity is chosen, the models are developed at microscopic (ion and neuron), mesoscopic (functional or population), or macroscopic (system) levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • orientation
  • Each point represents the average sum of the LGN spikes converging to a V1 neuron of preferred orientation indicated on the x axis. (pnas.org)
  • Neurons are ordered monotonically according to their preferred orientation. (pnas.org)
  • D ) Heterogeneous network-orientation tuning curves of the same neurons as in C . The figure shows a high degree of heterogeneity of response amplitudes and orientation tuning widths. (pnas.org)
  • The slopes were computed from the tuning curves of all of the neurons by presenting a stimulus at a fixed, vertical orientation. (pnas.org)
  • The orientation preference of neurons did not change significantly when the level of response heterogeneity was increased. (pnas.org)
  • membrane
  • Precise explanation of a group of coupled spiking neurons is far beyond our understanding, but if we go deeper and consider a single neuron alone, we can see that any spiking pattern depends on the presence of the ion channel in the cell membrane. (hindawi.com)
  • As an example, consider a neuron with a resting membrane potential of -70 mV (millivolts) and a threshold of -50 mV. (wikipedia.org)
  • These neurons use a graded potential to transmit data as they lack the membrane potential that spiking neurons possess. (wikipedia.org)
  • The German physical chemist Walther Nernst applied this concept in experiments to discover nervous excitability, and concluded that the local excitatory process through a semi-permeable membrane depends upon the ionic concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, when an electrochemical signal stimulates a neuron, it occurs at a dendrite and causes changes in the electrical potential across the neuron's plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • generate
  • This is not the expected result if neurons targeted by suppression are like those that generate it. (jneurosci.org)
  • We are now able to use pluripotent stem cells to generate many types of human neurons, including those most affected in autism, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. (stanford.edu)
  • The threshold value controls whether or not the incoming stimuli are sufficient to generate an action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • intrinsic
  • These spiking patterns can be classified into four major groups: regular spiking, fast spiking, intrinsic bursting, and continuous bursting neurons [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • computational
  • Since any brain disorder involves a group of neurons, a computationally efficient neuron model that can help understand the behavior of a large group of coupled neurons, while providing low computational complexity, is of high significance [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • primary
  • Medium spiny neurons have two primary phenotypes (characteristic types): D1-type MSNs of the direct pathway and D2-type MSNs of the indirect pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • Normally, more than single input impulse is necessary for exciting neuron up to the level when it fires and emits an output impulse. (wikipedia.org)