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  • receptors
  • It has been hypothesized that neuronal gangliosides are involved in receptors for biogenic amines (1-3) and certain neuro-toxins (4,5), and it is generally, although not universally (6), believed that, in the central nervous system, gangliosides are to be found concentrated in synaptic membranes. (springer.com)
  • Gangliosides perform important functions through carbohydrate-specific interactions with proteins, for example, as receptors in cell-cell recognition, which can be exploited by viruses and other pathogens, and also by regulating signaling proteins, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), through lateral interaction in the membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast to LT-IIb, which binds strongly to ganglioside receptors decorated with either N -acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) or N -glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc), LT-IIb(T13I) binds NeuAc gangliosides much less well. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To determine if the adjuvant properties of LT-IIb(T13I) are altered in the absence of NeuGc ganglioside receptors, experiments were conducted using a Cmah -null mouse line which is deficient in the synthesis of NeuGc gangliosides. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Notably, our results showed that immune complex formation and the activating Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) were involved in the anti-ganglioside Abs-mediated nodal and axonal injury in this model. (jneurosci.org)
  • There are no systematic studies examining the role of Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs) and macrophages in anti-ganglioside Ab-mediated nodal and axonal injury. (jneurosci.org)
  • ceramide
  • Ganglioside GM1 (18:1/12:0) is a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide)or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more sialic acids (i.e. n-acetylneuraminic acid) linked on the sugar chain. (hmdb.ca)
  • membrane
  • Gangliosides are typically found as membrane constituents in brain, a finding that suggests a specific functional role in the central nervous system (CNS). (springer.com)
  • More recently, it has become evident that gangliosides are ubiquitous, i.e., occurring not only in the nervous system, and should be considered important constituents of the surface membrane of most, perhaps all, animal cells of Deuterostomia . (springer.com)
  • However, in order to provide a plausible working hypothesis for any specific roles of gangliosides in brain function, a more precise knowledge on the contribution given by gangliosides to the local environment of the membrane, in terms of capability and quality of interactions with both the lipid and protein components of the membrane itself, is required. (springer.com)
  • composition
  • The elucidation of the chemical composition of sialic acid was accompanied by the recognition that it has specific biological properties and that the gangliosides are frequently the glycoconjugate carrier. (springer.com)
  • Gazzotti G, Sonnino S, Ghidoni R, Orlando P, Tettamanti G (1984b) Preparation of the tritiated molecular forms of gangliosides, separated with homogeneous long chain base composition. (springer.com)
  • Results suggest that changes in the ganglioside composition of cell membranes might be important in the regulation of the EGF signal transduction. (biochemj.org)
  • acidic
  • However, the stored lipid products are more heterogeneous than in most storage disorders and include gangliosides, sphingolipids, phospholipids, acidic mucopolysaccharides, and cholesterol ( 11 - 14 ). (rupress.org)
  • Ganglioside GM1 carries a net-negative charge at pH 7.0 and is acidic. (hmdb.ca)
  • fibroblasts
  • Chigorno V, Pitto M, Cardace G, Acquotti D, Kirschner G, Sonnino S, Ghidoni R, Tettamanti G (1985) Association of gangliosides to fibroblasts in culture: a study performed with GM1 ["C]-labelled at the sialic acid acetyl group. (springer.com)
  • In addition, the effect of exogenous gangliosides on the expression of hyaluronic acid was examined in orbital fibroblasts. (arvojournals.org)
  • phosphatidylcholine
  • Bertoli E, Masserini M, Sonnino S, Ghidoni R, Cestaro B, Tettamanti G (1981) Electron paramagnetic resonance studies on the fluidity and surface dynamics of egg phosphatidylcholine vesicles containing gangliosides. (springer.com)
  • We tested the hypothesis that nanoliposomes composed of monosialoganglioside, phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol (GM1 ganglioside-containing nanoliposomes [ NLGM can protect against LC ‐induced human microvascular dysfunction and assess mechanisms behind the protective effect. (ahajournals.org)
  • glycan
  • It remains unclear whether macrophages interact with immune complexes, formed by anti-glycan Ab binding to gangliosides on nodal and internodal axolemma and, if so, which molecules on macrophages are involved in this interaction. (jneurosci.org)
  • Carbohydrate
  • Deficiencies in lysosomal enzymes that degrade the carbohydrate portions of various gangliosides are responsible for a number of lysosomal storage diseases such as Tay-Sachs disease, Sandhoff disease, and GM1 gangliosidosis. (hmdb.ca)
  • The carbohydrate portion of the ganglioside GM1 is the site of attachment of cholera toxin, the protein secreted by Vibrio cholerae. (hmdb.ca)
  • The results obtained strongly suggested that A-and B-active carbohydrate chain epitopes were present as separate ganglioside molecules in type AB erythrocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • molecules
  • While sialic acid exists in free form, or as a part of relatively small heterosaccharide molecules, the major portion of naturally occurring sialic acid is present as a constituent of either glycoproteins or gangliosides. (springer.com)
  • In this review, we describe how proteins recognize gangliosides, focusing on the molecular recognition of gangliosides associated with cancer immunotherapy, and discuss the importance of these molecules in cancer research. (frontiersin.org)
  • Accumulating evidence indicates that many cellular events, including differentiation, growth, signaling, interactions, and immune reactions are highly influenced by gangliosides, and that these molecules may also cause malignancies. (frontiersin.org)
  • deficient
  • A previous report suggested that there is deficient ganglioside sialidase activity associated with MLIV ( 15 ), whereas others argued against this enzyme deficiency ( 12 , 16 ). (rupress.org)
  • preparative
  • Gazzotti G, Sonnino S, Ghidoni R, Kirschner G, Tettamanti G (1984a) Analytical and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography of gangliosides. (springer.com)
  • quantitative
  • Negative-ion hydrophilic liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HILIC/ESI-MS) method has been optimized for the quantitative analysis of ganglioside (GM3) and other polar lipid classes, such as sulfohexosylceramides (SulfoHexCer), sulfodihexosylceramides (SulfoHex2Cer), phosphatidylglycerols (PG), phosphatidylinositols (PI), lysophosphatidylinositols (LPI), and phosphatidylserines (PS). (springer.com)
  • 1977
  • Ghidoni R, Tettamanti G, Zambotti V (1977) Labelling of natural substrates for the radiochemical assay of enzymes involved in the lipid storage diseases: a general procedure for tritiation of gangliosides. (springer.com)
  • brain
  • Furthermore, it has long been recognized that certain lipidoses that affect the nervous system, such as Tay Sachs disease, are characterized by ganglioside accumulation within cells of the brain. (springer.com)
  • The discovery of these ganglioside species provides essential links for a new possible biosynthetic pathway leading to the major tetrasialoganglioside, G Q1c , of the fish brain. (springer.com)
  • For further information, we have prepared purified intact and hypoosmotically ruptured synaptosomes from beef brain in order to probe the structural disposition of gangliosides in these preparations by surface labelling techniques for sialosyl and galactosyl components, and we have made preliminary observations on the modifying influence of calcium ions. (springer.com)
  • autoimmune
  • Over the last 20 years, there has been a widespread increase in the use of antiganglioside antibody assays as diagnostic tools, based on the recognition from research studies that gangliosides are important autoantigens in many patients with autoimmune peripheral nerve disorders (1). (asmscience.org)
  • specific
  • Ghidoni R, Sonnino S, Masserini M, Orlando P, Tettamanti G (1981) Specific tritium labeling of gangliosides at the 3-position of sphingosines. (springer.com)
  • Several studies have implied that specific anti-ganglioside Abs induce neuropathy in patients with axonal forms of GBS. (jneurosci.org)
  • The specific names for the gangliosides provide information about their structure. (hmdb.ca)
  • Critical
  • These studies provide new evidence that the activating FcγRs-mediated inflammation plays a critical role in anti-ganglioside Abs-induced neuropathy (injury to intact nerve fibers) in GBS. (jneurosci.org)
  • indicate
  • Our studies indicate that, in this mouse model, anti-ganglioside Abs induce sequential nodal and axonal injury of intact myelinated nerve fibers, recapitulating pathologic features of human disease. (jneurosci.org)
  • The letter G refers to ganglioside, and the subscripts M, D, T and Q indicate that the molecule contains mono-, di-, tri and quatra-sialic acid. (hmdb.ca)