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  • dorsal
  • To understand the range of competence of embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived neural precursors, we have examined in vitro differentiation of mouse and primate ES cells into the dorsal- (neural crest) and ventralmost (floor plate) cells of the neural axis. (pnas.org)
  • A) Convergent extension occurs in both dorsal mesodermal and posterior neural tissues. (biologists.org)
  • failure of sclerotome cells to migrate into the region dorsal to the neural tube leading to the absence of vertebral arches in that region occurs in what disorder? (brainscape.com)
  • The neural crest is a population of cells that emigrates from the dorsal neural tube during early embryogenesis and migrates extensively to give rise to a myriad of cell types. (els.net)
  • Cell fate specification - the selection of an individual cell fate from all the possibilities available to a multipotent progenitor - is likely to involve a series of steps, in which cells become progressively restricted to individual fates, a process that is likely to begin while still in the dorsal neural tube, but which then is usually completed during, or even after migration. (els.net)
  • The cells localise near the dorsal aorta to form the sympathetic ganglia (SY), align along the ventral root motor fibres (VR) and differentiate into glial cells, or coalesce near the dorsal neural tube and constitute the sensory or dorsal root ganglia (DRG). (els.net)
  • fate
  • An alternative and equally possible scenario is that the neural plate border region maintains a random mixture of intermingled but fate-restricted precursors. (elifesciences.org)
  • In past decades, this question has been addressed by fate mapping studies in which small groups of neural plate border ( Schoenwolf and Sheard, 1990 ) or presumptive placodal precursors ( Streit, 2002 ) were labeled using focal injections of the lipophilic dye DiI in gastrula stage chicken embryos. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, DiI labeling typically labels small numbers (10-50) of cells, thus leaving open the question of whether the neural plate border contains multipotent and/or intermixed, fate restricted cells and their relative positions. (elifesciences.org)
  • Neural crest migration patterns are complex, and usually specific to the derivative fate adopted. (els.net)
  • While some or all neural crest cells are initially multipotent, specification of individual derivative fates likely results from progressive fate restriction. (els.net)
  • Neural crest fate specification involves a combination of intracellular and extracellular factors. (els.net)
  • Fate specification in the neural crest. (els.net)
  • In the progressive fate restriction model, neural crest cells in a premigratory position are initially fully multipotent, but then they undergo a process of progressive restriction of fate potential (represented by decreased colour options in fill), until single fate has been selected. (els.net)
  • differentiation
  • Although early exposure of SDIA-treated ES cells to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4 suppresses neural differentiation and promotes epidermogenesis, late BMP4 exposure after the fourth day of coculture causes differentiation of neural crest cells and dorsalmost CNS cells, with autonomic system and sensory lineages induced preferentially by high and low BMP4 concentrations, respectively. (pnas.org)
  • Notably, high concentrations of Shh efficiently promote differentiation of HNF3β + floor plate cells with axonal guidance activities. (pnas.org)
  • cells
  • To this end, we performed quantitative analysis of the transcription factors Sox2, Pax7, Msx1/2, Tfap2a and Six1 in neural plate border cells of chick embryos as a function of time. (elifesciences.org)
  • We found that arsenic and its metabolites, monomethylarsonous (MMA III) acid and dimethylarsinous (DMA III) acid, target a specific population of progenitor cells termed the neural plate border specifier (NPBS) cells by reducing the expression of signals required for neurogenesis (Pax3, Sox10, and NeuroD1) and myogenesis (Msx1, MyoD, and Myogenin). (clemson.edu)
  • Starting on day 2, in the neurogenic pathway, and day 3 in the myogenic pathway, arsenic is targeting the neural plate border specifier (NPBS) cells, which resulted in reduced transcription factor expression of Pax3 and Msx1. (clemson.edu)
  • In the neurogenic pathway, it appears that MMA III is targeting the neural plate border specifier cells on day 3, while DMA III does not affect transcription factor expression until day 5. (clemson.edu)
  • Neural crest cells arise from the neural plate border, a region localized at the lateral borders of the prospective neural plate. (fau.de)
  • What is it called when the neural crest cells fail to migrate to the facial region? (brainscape.com)
  • The remaining cells in the center form the neural plate. (oercommons.org)
  • Neural crest cells give rise to many different cell‐types. (els.net)
  • Schoenwolf
  • Recent progress has also been made in understanding the cellular mechanisms by which neural morphogenesis occurs ( Smith and Schoenwolf, 1997 ). (biologists.org)