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  • real neurons
  • In comparison, SiNs offer a practical computational medium that is intermediate between biological neurons and digital computers in terms of power and space efficiencies, and is orders of magnitude faster than real neurons in terms of computing speed (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • membrane
  • More than often, there is random exocytosis of vesicles containing neurotransmitters, which eventually bind to the postsynaptic membrane, leading to a spontaneous action potential by graded potentials in the postsynaptic neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Voltage-gated sodium channels are proteins found in the membrane of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • axon
  • If a specific input signal is initiated in the dendrites of a neuron, then a hypervariability exists in the number of vesicles released from the axon terminal fiber into the synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The output is analogous to the axon of a biological neuron, and its value propagates to the input of the next layer, through a synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical neuron consists of a cell body (soma), dendrites, and an axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most neurons receive signals via the dendrites and send out signals down the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell body of a neuron frequently gives rise to multiple dendrites, but never to more than one axon, although the axon may branch hundreds of times before it terminates. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical neuron is divided into three parts: the soma or cell body, dendrites, and axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basket cells make up 5-10% of total neurons in the cortex.There are three types of basket cells in the cortex, the small, large and nest type: The axon of a small basket cell arborizes in the vicinity of that same cell's dendritic range, this axon is short. (wikipedia.org)
  • subset
  • The selection of this subset of neurons is termed neuronal allocation. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are described as parvalbumin-containing and fast-spiking to distinguish them from other subtypes of GABAergic neurons, although more recent work has suggested that only a subset of chandelier cells test positive for parvalbumin by immunostaining. (wikipedia.org)
  • In each region of the brain, related stimuli have a different subset of available neurons to process them together. (wikipedia.org)
  • signals
  • Single neurons demonstrate different responses to specific neuronal input signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • These dendrites allow the cell to receive signals from a large (>1000) number of neighboring neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several studies provide evidence that neurons receiving "priming activity" (such as neurotransmitters, paracrine signals, or hormones) minutes to days prior will show a lower threshold for induction of long term potentiation (LTP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Motor neurons receive signals from the brain and spinal cord to cause everything from muscle contractions and affect glandular outputs. (wikipedia.org)
  • They receive electrical signals emitted from projecting neurons and transfer these signals to the cell body, or soma. (wikipedia.org)
  • synapse
  • In November 2011, a group of MIT researchers created a computer chip that mimics the analog, ion-based communication in a synapse between two neurons using 400 transistors and standard CMOS manufacturing techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • This unique device physics led to the advent of "neuromorphic" silicon neurons (SiNs) which allow neuronal spiking dynamics to be directly emulated on analog VLSI chips without the need for digital software simulation ( Mahowald and Douglas, 1991 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Neuronal noise or neural noise refers to the random intrinsic electrical fluctuations within neuronal networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-linear neural networks are a network of complex neurons that have many connections with one another such as the neuronal systems found within our brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, current research suggests that neuronal noise is beneficial to non-linear or complex neural networks up until optimal value. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigators of neural ensembles and those who especially support the theory of distributed processing, propose that large neuronal populations effectively decrease noise by averaging out the noise in individual neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many theories of why noise is apparent in the neuronal networks, but many neurologists are unclear of why they exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • More generally, two types of impacts of neuronal noise can be distinguished: it will either add variability to the neural response, or more interestingly enable noise - induced dynamical phenomena which would not have been observed in a noise-free system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuronal allocation is a phenomenon that accounts for how specific neurons in a network, and not others that receive similar input, are committed to storing a specific memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metaplasticity is a term describing the likelihood that a given stimulus will induce neuronal plasticity, based on the previous activity experienced by that neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic spikes have been recorded in numerous types of neurons in the brain and are thought to have great implications in neuronal communication, memory, and learning. (wikipedia.org)
  • hippocampus
  • To determine how well their sensor works with larger numbers of neurons, they inserted it into brain slices from mouse hippocampus containing thousands of neurons. (kurzweilai.net)
  • However, there is strong evidence for generation of substantial numbers of new neurons in two brain areas, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • excitatory
  • 6. The method of claim 1, wherein the two or more regimes comprise first and second regimes, wherein in the first regime the neuron model begins losing memory of a prior input after receiving the prior input and wherein in the second regime the neuron model will fire, even with no further excitatory input, such that further excitatory or inhibitory input affects only when the neuron model will fire. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • biologically inspired
  • The first point I'd like to address is the Superconducting Neuron model - this is an approach which attempts to build real life biologically inspired neural nets from superconducting hardware. (wordpress.com)
  • The question is, does this limitation mean that it is theoretically impossible to build biologically inspired neural networks in planar hardware? (wordpress.com)
  • Research at HP Labs on Mott memristors has shown that while they can be non-volatile, the volatile behavior exhibited at temperatures significantly below the phase transition temperature can be exploited to fabricate a neuristor, a biologically-inspired device that mimics behavior found in neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • algorithm
  • The algorithm (1) generates qualitatively state-of-the-art synthetic images that look almost real, (2) reveals the features learned by each neuron in an interpretable way, (3) generalizes well to new datasets and somewhat well to different network architectures without requiring the prior to be relearned, and (4) can be considered as a high-quality generative method (in this case, by generating novel, creative, interesting, recognizable images). (arxiv.org)
  • olfactory
  • List of sensory systems Sensory neuron Perception Visual system Auditory system Somatosensory system Vestibular system Olfactory system Taste Pain Neuron Interneuron Ganglion (PNS) vs Nucleus (neuroanatomy) (CNS) except basal ganglia (CNS) Nerve(PNS) vs Tract (neuroanatomy) (CNS) White matter (more myelinated) vs Grey matter Glial cells, commonly called neuroglia or glia, are supportive cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for the brain's neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • circuits
  • Unlike numerical simulation on general-purpose serial computers, computation delay of analog SiN circuits is independent of network size except for signal propagation. (frontiersin.org)
  • What I understand about this field so far: In the 1990's a couple of Japanese groups tried to demonstrate principles of superconducting neuron circuits. (wordpress.com)
  • A key aspect of neuromorphic engineering is understanding how the morphology of individual neurons, circuits, applications, and overall architectures creates desirable computations, affects how information is represented, influences robustness to damage, incorporates learning and development, adapts to local change (plasticity), and facilitates evolutionary change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially, noise in complex computer circuit or neural circuits is thought to slow down and negatively affect the processing power. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has shown that unary coding is used in the neural circuits responsible for birdsong production. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulus
  • A neuron device includes a bottom electrode, a top electrode, and a layer of metal oxide variable resistance material sandwiched between the bottom electrode and the top electrode, in which the neuron device is switched to a normal state upon application of reset pulse, and is switched to an excitation state upon application of stimulus pulses. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The neuron device has a comprehensive response to different amplitude, different width of a stimulus voltage pulse and different number of a sequence of stimulus pulses, and provides functionalities of a weighting section and a computing section. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 8. The neuron device of claim 1, wherein the stimulus voltage pulse is one of square wave, triangular wave and sine wave. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • A neuron normally fires when excited by one very specific feature of a stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to grandmother cells, an individual neuron in sparse coding is involved in coding two things, and two neurons code for a specific stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • nets
  • Jürgen Schmidhuber cites GDMH as one of the earliest deep learning methods, remarking that it was used to train eight-layer neural nets as early as 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • One explanation is based on sparse coding and another on neural nets. (wikipedia.org)
  • situated in sensory
  • In vertebrates, the majority of neurons belong to the central nervous system, but some reside in peripheral ganglia, and many sensory neurons are situated in sensory organs such as the retina and cochlea. (wikipedia.org)
  • comprises
  • Neurons are the primary components of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, and of the peripheral nervous system, which comprises the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • spinal cord
  • Sensory neurons respond to one particular type of stimuli such as touch, sound, or light and all other stimuli affecting the cells of the sensory organs, and converts it into an electrical signal via transduction, which is then sent to the spinal cord or brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interneurons connect neurons to other neurons within the same region of the brain or spinal cord in neural networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons are the core components of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • perceptron
  • This is useful in classification networks, where the output of a perceptron might be used to indicate the presence or absence of a particular feature, An output of zero would mean the feature was absent, while an output of 1 would mean that the feature was present. (rareschool.com)
  • It is often believed (incorrectly) that they also conjectured that a similar result would hold for a multi-layer perceptron network. (wikipedia.org)
  • pulses
  • Ca ++ fluxes that are elicited by brief pulses of light to cultured cells expressing melanopsin and to neurons-expressing channelrhodopsin are quantified and imaged with the BRET Ca ++ sensor in darkness, thereby avoiding undesirable consequences of fluorescence irradiation. (kurzweilai.net)
  • processes
  • There have also been efforts in optical recording of neurons using fluorescence , but this requires a strong external light source which can cause the tissue to heat up and can interfere with some biological processes, particularly those that are light sensitive, Johnson explained. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Such processes include self-assembly, developmental processes, gene regulation networks, protein-protein interaction networks, biological transport (active transport, passive transport) networks, and gene assembly in unicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microglia Astrocyte Oligodendrocyte (CNS) vs Schwann cell (PNS) A neuron (also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is an excitable cell in the nervous system that processes and transmits information by electrochemical signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. (stackexchange.com)
  • A sensory system consists of sensory receptors, neural pathways, and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimuli
  • Hoffmann noted many similarities between the immune system and the brain, including that: both systems have memory and are able to respond appropriately to a wide range of stimuli both networks consist of comparable numbers of cells, and both systems have a profound sense of self. (wikipedia.org)
  • neurotransmitters
  • Neurochemistry is the study of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that influence the function of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendrite
  • The faster a biological neuron fires, the faster nearby neurons accumulate electrical potential (or lose electrical potential, depending on the "weighting" of the dendrite that connects to the neuron that fired). (wikipedia.org)
  • The same type of voltage-gated channels may differ in distribution between the soma and dendrite within the same neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • SiNs will therefore be most useful when large-scale dedicated neural computing is desired in real time and under stringent power and space/weight constraints, such as in neuroprosthetic, brain-computer interface, or embedded machine intelligence applications. (frontiersin.org)
  • Johnson and his colleagues realized that if they could combine luminescence with optogenetics (which uses light to control cells, particularly neurons), they could create a powerful new tool for studying brain activity. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Artificial neural networks, known also as simply neural networks, grew out of attempts to understand the workings of the human brain. (google.com)
  • Interestingly, recent advances in understanding of human visuomotor control along with major advances in fMRI neural network analysis will likely expand on the rather simplistic view of the dorsal and ventral streams, integrating them into large scale whole brain networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • As is commonly accepted in brain science, the basic unit of information processing is a neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, neurons are generated by special types of stem cells during brain development and childhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons in the adult brain generally do not undergo cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • How chandelier cells light up human thought - A type of brain cell called a chandelier neuron might be what gives us the edge over other mammals in thought and language, New Scientist, 3 September 2008 Woodruff A, Yuste R (September 2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sparse coding starts with the activation of moderately small sets of neurons in a small region of the brain. (wikipedia.org)