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  • neurons
  • Multipotent neural progenitor cells can differentiate into neurons and glial cells (e.g., astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) in the mammalian CNS, but the molecular mechanisms that control their fate specification are not yet fully understood. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, a team of researchers from INSERM* and CEA** released a study in which they discovered, in a mouse model, that the pharmacological inhibition of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) improves the production of new neurons. (stemcellsfreak.com)
  • In their paper, the researchers first explain that new neurons are formed throughout our life by neural stem cells and this is why our cognitive abilities stay the same. (stemcellsfreak.com)
  • The timing of spikes in principal neurons has millisecond precision, and I asked what are the roles of inhibition in shaping the temporal codes that emerge from different parallel local neural circuits. (unibas.ch)
  • Next I characterised a subpopulation of genetically-identified neurons in the mouse retina, in order to compare the precise timing of inhibition in different circuits at a high temporal resolution. (unibas.ch)
  • Optical inhibition of striatal neurons promotes focal neurogenesis and neurobehavioral recovery in mice after middle cerebral artery occlusion," Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism , vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 837-847, 2017. (hindawi.com)
  • progenitor cell
  • Although recent work suggests that HDAC recruitment at target promoters is important for lineage specification in a variety of nonneural cell types ( 10 , 11 ), there is little understanding of the control of chromatin modification and histone acetylation at a global level in a multipotent neural progenitor cell. (pnas.org)
  • Microglia positively affect neural progenitor cell physiology through the release of inflammatory mediators or trophic factors. (edu.au)
  • circuitry
  • Finally, I looked deeper within the neural circuitry of one of the genetically-identified cell types, to study the mechanism of 'fast inhibition' in detecting approaching objects. (unibas.ch)
  • They have also used the existing channelrhodopsins to probe the neural circuitry implicated in Parkinson's Disease and thus gain a better understanding of why deep brain stimulation is effective in treating the disease. (scienceblogs.com)
  • precursor cells
  • Ortega, Francisco J., Vukovic, Jana, Rodriguez, Manuel J. and Bartlett, Perry F. (2014) Blockade of microglial KATP-channel abrogates suppression of inflammatory-mediated inhibition of neural precursor cells. (edu.au)
  • In this study, we investigated whether the microglial KATP-channel directly influences the activation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) from the subventricular zone using transgenic Csf1r-GFP mice. (edu.au)
  • Delayed transplantation of human neural precursor cells improves outcome from focal cerebral ischemia in aged rats," Aging Cell , vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1076-1083, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells and enriched environment after cortical stroke in rats: cell survival and functional recovery," The European Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 562-574, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • cortical
  • This behavior strongly depends on the initial working point (WP) of the neural populations (between the linear and the upper saturation region of a sigmoidal function) and on how the cortical activation or deactivation can move the WP in the upper saturation region ERD or in the linear region ERS, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • We sought to determine in children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) whether clinical responses correlate with changes in short interval cortical inhibition (SICI). (curehunter.com)
  • In children with TS, one month of atomoxetine treatment appears to induce correlated improvements in ADHD and, paradoxically, further reductions in cortical inhibition. (curehunter.com)
  • investigate the ne
  • To investigate the neural substrates underlying this phenomenon, we orthogonally combined the spatial IOR with the Simon effect in the present event-related fMRI study. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dynamics
  • Canonical correlation analysis revealed that the relationship between network connectivity and cognitive function was age-dependent: cognitive performance relied on neural dynamics more strongly in older adults. (jneurosci.org)
  • neuronal
  • Here, we show that an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, valproic acid (VPA), induced neuronal differentiation of adult hippocampal neural progenitors. (pnas.org)
  • In addition to its differentiation effects, VPA has been shown to mediate neuronal protection through the activation of signal transduction pathways, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway ( 15 ) and through the inhibition of proapoptotic factors ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • To estimate network interactions at the neuronal rather than vascular level, we used generative models that specified both the neural interactions and a flexible neurovascular forward model. (jneurosci.org)
  • excitatory
  • Our findings suggest that the balance of excitatory connectivity between networks, and the stability of intrinsic neural representations within networks, changes with age. (jneurosci.org)
  • thus
  • Thus, recordings of tonic inhibition have been made in many different labs under a variety of different experimental conditions, many of which are likely to impact upon the magnitude of the tonic conductance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, the inhibition of ovarian estradiol secretion during noxious physical stress was mainly integrated in the brainstem, and this inhibitory response was due to reflex activation of sympathetic nerves to the ovary. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Connectivity
  • To study the neural basis of cognitive function across the lifespan, we studied a large population-based cohort ( n = 602, 18-88 years), separating neural connectivity from vascular components of fMRI signals. (jneurosci.org)
  • microglial
  • Human neural stem cell grafts modify microglial response and enhance axonal sprouting in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury," Stroke , vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 516-523, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, the HDAC inhibition mediated by VPA has been shown to suppress the growth and increase the differentiation of many different tumor cell lines ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • receptors
  • Barbiturates enhance inhibition by acting directly on GABA receptors, keeping the chloride channel open longer, allowing more negative ions to enter the cell. (aconversationonautism.com)
  • Tonic inhibition is mediated by extrasynaptic GABA A receptors of defined subunit composition (usually containing the α5 or δ subunits). (frontiersin.org)
  • These receptors display a high affinity for GABA that allows them to respond to the low ambient levels of GABA present in the extracellular space and generate a persistent "tonic" inhibition. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, here, we use the phrase "tonic inhibition" to describe the activity of extrasynaptic GABA A receptors, even when the effect on action potential generation has not been quantified, since this has become widely accepted as a convention within the field. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sequential inhibition of sexual receptivity by progesterone is prevented by a protein synthesis inhibitor and is not causally related to decreased levels of hypothalamic progestin receptors in the female rat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • cognitive
  • First, they say that the experiments showed their initial hypothesis stood correct, as the cognitive decline is attributed to alterations in the stem cell microenvironment rather than to a direct effect on the neural stem cells. (stemcellsfreak.com)
  • interact
  • Specifically, my research has examined (1) the neural processes supporting executive functions, (2) the neural processes supporting episodic retrieval, and (3) how neural processes interact for top-down control of episodic retrieval. (bowdoin.edu)
  • Alterations
  • In this study, the research team hypothesised that alterations in the microenviroment where neural stem cells live are responsible for the aforementioned neurogenetic decline. (stemcellsfreak.com)
  • mechanism
  • In addition, we are interested in how neural oscillations provide a mechanism for interaction among brain regions during memory retrieval. (bowdoin.edu)
  • cells
  • It is known that increasing serotonin levels in the amygdala leads to an inhibition of amygdala activity, but this is achieved by exciting GABA cells, which then do the inhibiting. (aconversationonautism.com)
  • The hippocampal neural progenitor cells isolated from adult female Fisher 344 rats in this study have been characterized in refs. (pnas.org)
  • These results suggest a role for GalC or a highly related molecule in HIV entry into neural cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Human neural stem cells enhance structural plasticity and axonal transport in the ischaemic brain," Brain , vol. 134, Part 6, pp. 1777-1789, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • activity
  • Pleural abdominal nerves were dissected out, and suction electrodes were applied to electrically stimulate and record neural activity. (spie.org)
  • Moreover, left precentral gyrus was involved in the neural interaction between spatial IOR and the Simon effect by showing significantly higher neural activity in the "Cued_Congruent" condition. (frontiersin.org)
  • These effects were driven partly by reduced stability of neural activity within all networks, as expressed by an accelerated decay of neural information. (jneurosci.org)
  • effects
  • I am relying on LeDoux's statement above related to their effects on GABA inhibition. (aconversationonautism.com)
  • To examine the temporal nature of the notochord's inhibitory ability, we assayed the effects on neural crest migration of grafting notochords from 2- to 5-day-old donor quail embryos into 2-day-old host chick embryos. (caltech.edu)
  • By combining spatial inhibition of return (IOR) which implicates the orienting network with some executive function tasks (e.g., the Stroop and the flanker tasks) which implicate the executive network, researchers consistently found that the interference effects are significantly reduced at cued compared to uncued locations, indicating the functional interaction between the two attention networks. (frontiersin.org)
  • optical
  • Preliminary computational modeling suggests that using two axially adjacent optical fibers reduces peak temperatures required for infrared neural inhibition (INI). (spie.org)
  • Radiant exposures required for inhibition using a single fiber were reduced by ~37.4% by using two axially adjacent optical fibers. (spie.org)
  • methods
  • This diversity of experimental conditions and analytical methods makes comparison of tonic inhibition between studies quite difficult. (frontiersin.org)
  • We will then consider the available methods for measurement and analysis of the tonic conductance, including how the use of current noise may provide a complementary method for analysis of tonic inhibition. (frontiersin.org)
  • spatial
  • Recent evidence suggests that schizophrenic patients show abnormalities in spatial orienting of attention, particularly a deficit of inhibition of return (IOR). (uzh.ch)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore the role of inhibition is to detect 'irrelevance' in the visual scene, only allowing the ganglion cell to fire at specific time points relating to functions that are both parallel and complementary to the other cell types. (unibas.ch)
  • nerves
  • By reducing peak temperatures, neural block using IR light will subject nerves to lower peak temperatures and provide a more research and clinically relevant technology. (spie.org)
  • human
  • Molecular and magnetic resonance imaging of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell grafts inischemic rat brain," Molecular Therapy , vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1282-1291, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • studies
  • Most experimental studies of tonic GABAergic inhibition have been carried out using acute brain slice preparations but tonic currents have been recorded under a variety of different conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • This diversity of recording conditions is likely to impact upon many of the factors responsible for controlling tonic inhibition and can make comparison between different studies difficult. (frontiersin.org)
  • however
  • There is no evidence that the current irradiation schemes alters nerve functionality, however lower temperatures provide a safer environment for sustained inhibition. (spie.org)
  • basis
  • Subjects, classified on the basis of their mean auditory threshold and masking curves according to Feldmann, underwent a residual inhibition (RI) test and ipsilateral narrow-band noise masking before a second ABR test was performed. (biomedsearch.com)