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  • ectodermal
  • Genetic Cre-lox lineage tracing of the neural crest (NC) versus ectodermal contribution to the developing nasal placode was performed using two complementary mouse models, the NC-specific Wnt1Cre mouse line and an ectodermal-specific Crect mouse line. (jneurosci.org)
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidermal
  • In order to study the mechanisms by which Mc1r signaling protects the skin against UV injury, this study relies on a mouse model with "humanized skin" based on epidermal expression of stem cell factor (Scf). (jove.com)
  • gene
  • We present pulse-chase and gene expression data that imply that the gecko dental lamina houses cells that resemble mammalian adult stem cells in terms of cell cycling, gene expression and molecular regulation. (biologists.org)
  • A Theory proposes a minimal model of gene regulation, in which various types of genes interact to control the differentiation of cells through differential gene expression. (asu.edu)
  • Latest insights possess recommended that molecular 'sound' due to fluctuations in gene appearance indication transduction and various other processes impacts phenotypic heterogeneity in microorganisms which range from microbes to mammals . (biosweepny.com)
  • Melanosomes were identified in these pigmented cells by electron microscopy, and global gene expression profiling of the pigmented cells showed a high similarity to that of human primary foreskin-derived melanocytes, suggesting the successful generation of melanocytes from iPS cells. (jove.com)
  • Ligand proteins binding to the extracellular domain induce proteolytic cleavage and release of the intracellular domain, which enters the cell nucleus to modify gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene plays a role in the determination of cell fates during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The numb gene protein product controls binary cell fate decisions in the peripheral and central nervous systems of both invertebrates and mammals during neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-catenin is a dual function protein, involved in regulation and coordination of cell-cell adhesion and gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • determines
  • The neural crest determines the shape of the face, that is characteristic species shape. (els.net)
  • A morphogen is a substance that determines the fate and phenotype of a group of cells through a concentration gradient of itself across that group. (asu.edu)
  • regeneration
  • The bone marrow contains heterogeneous population of cells that are involved in the regeneration and repair of diseased organs, including the lungs. (jove.com)
  • tissue
  • Methods for improving the tissue inductive activity of a morphogenic protein in a mammal using those compositions are provided. (patents.com)
  • Methods of treating tissue degenerative conditions in a mammal using the pharmaceutical compositions are also provided. (patents.com)
  • The formation of cells normally not present in skin might be due to transdifferentiation, which describes the conversion of a cell type of a specific tissue lineage into a cell type of another lineage ( Wagers and Weissman, 2004 ). (rupress.org)
  • When the pathway is active, stem cells divide to reconstitute a tissue, and when inactive, stem cells remain undifferentiated ( Haegebarth and Clevers, 2009 ). (biologists.org)
  • It is generally thought that one of the factors contributing to this efficient repair is that skeletal muscle stem cells are tissue-specific stem cells, solely committed to myogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • This population supplies cells to a more restricted stem cell type with tissue specific epigenetic memory that differentiates into cell lineages characteristic of their tissue origin. (springer.com)
  • Stem cells can divide for long periods without differentiating, and under certain physiologic or experimental conditions they can be induced to become tissue- or organ-specific cells with special functions. (springer.com)
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • These data demonstrate that Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing cells share a common developmental origin. (jneurosci.org)
  • Clarifying the developmental lineage of specific cell populations is fundamental to understanding syndromic diseases and to unravel the molecular etiology and relationship between various phenotypic outcomes. (jneurosci.org)
  • In 1962 researcher John Bertrand Gurdon at the University of Oxford in Oxford, England, conducted a series of experiments on the developmental capacity of nuclei taken from intestinal epithelium cells of feeding tadpoles. (asu.edu)
  • extracellular
  • Although Tirofiban Hydrochloride Hydrate heterogeneity was seen in various kinds cells the consequences of extracellular stimuli on those heterogeneous populations never have been completely clarified. (biosweepny.com)
  • biology
  • As a result, scientists struggled to study human cell biology because there was not a reliable source of cells that represented diploid human cells. (asu.edu)
  • Author Summary Elucidation of the mechanisms that regulate cell fate has become one of the main goals of study in cell biology and regenerative medicine. (biosweepny.com)
  • In this review we discuss the historical perspective of stem cell populations from oral tissues in light of our current understanding of stem cell biology. (springer.com)
  • 7 ]. Here we review the historical perspective of the evolution of stem cell biology in dental research. (springer.com)
  • genetically
  • The cancer research community has relied on some of the same tumor-modeling systems for decades, namely cell lines, xenografts and, more recently, genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs). (biologists.org)
  • sensory
  • In both invertebrates and mammals, Numb is localized using the Pins/GαI complex and the PAR complex of Bazooka (Par3 in mammals), Par6, and aPKC (atypical protein kinase C). In the sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell, the PAR proteins localize to the posterior pole of the cell, and the Pins/GαI complex is localized to the anterior pole of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • For instance, measurements of yeast replicative lifespan through micromanipulation involve very small populations of cells, which prohibit detection of rare mutations. (jove.com)
  • Genetic methods to enrich for mother cells in populations by inducing death of daughter cells have been developed, but population sizes are still limited by the frequency with which random mutations that compromise the selection systems occur. (jove.com)
  • The current protocol takes advantage of magnetic sorting of surface-labeled yeast mother cells to obtain large enough populations of aging mother cells to quantify rare mutations through phenotypic selections. (jove.com)
  • Mutation rates, measured through fluctuation tests, and mutation frequencies are first established for young cells and used to predict the frequency of mutations in mother cells of various replicative ages. (jove.com)
  • Comparison of predicted mutation frequencies based on the number of cell divisions to the frequencies experimentally observed for mother cells of a given replicative age can then identify whether there are age-related changes in the rate of accumulating mutations. (jove.com)
  • epithelial cells
  • In this study, we isolated and characterized progenitor epithelial cells from the bone marrow of 4- to 5-week old germ-free pigs. (jove.com)
  • Progenitor epithelial cells expressed sialic acid receptors utilized by avian and mammalian influenza viruses and were targets for influenza virus replication. (jove.com)
  • Our data indicate that we have identified a unique population of progenitor epithelial cells in the bone marrow that might have airway reconstitution potential and may be a useful model for cell-based therapies for infectious and non-infectious lung diseases. (jove.com)
  • Throughout the last years, the contribution of alveolar type II epithelial cells (AECII) to various aspects of immune regulation in the lung has been increasingly recognized. (jove.com)
  • However, our understanding of the detailed immunologic functions served by alveolar type II epithelial cells in the healthy lung as well as in inflammation remains fragmentary. (jove.com)
  • In comparison to alternative methods of isolating primary epithelial cells from mouse lungs, our protocol for flow cytometric isolation of AECII by negative selection yields untouched, highly viable and pure AECII in relatively short time. (jove.com)
  • Differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • For example, clonal relationships, invasive properties and cell-cell interactions are not readily apparent upon histological examination of a murine tumor, when one is staring at a field of seemingly identical cancer cells. (biologists.org)
  • Intro Phenotypic heterogeneity which has been thoroughly discussed for tumor cells is not a unique home of cancerous cells but has also been observed in normal clonal cells in tradition . (biosweepny.com)
  • The rat pheochromocytoma clone Computer12 that was created from an adrenal medullary tumor produced from the adrenergic neural crest continues to be used being a style of neural differentiation. (biosweepny.com)