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  • neurons
  • Composed of countless neurons, glia, and vascular cells, the nervous system innervates all parts of the body to function as a vast communication network. (cshlpress.com)
  • Retinal ganglion cells, motor neurons, dorsal root ganglion cells, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells are covered, as are vascular cells such as pericytes and endothelial cells. (cshlpress.com)
  • which favours the prospect of "circuit reconstruction from grafted neurons placed at appropriate locations in the neural circuitry. (medindia.net)
  • Then, studies showed that adult neurons uniquely lack a protein that permanently turns off neuronal genes in the rest of the body's cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In contrast to the tight packaging of neural genes in other cells, REST keeps the chromatin in embryonic stem and precursor neurons open and poised for gene activity. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Real neurons, however, are far more intricate.Through reviews of literature and results from original experiments, Neural Cell Behavior and Fuzzy Logic offers a comprehensive look at these complex systems, supplying trustworthy evidence that neurons can predict the consequences of input signals and transiently change their own excitability to suit. (springer.com)
  • These intermediate-stage cells can further specialize into the neurons that carry nerve signals, and the glial cells that perform many support and nutritional functions. (scitechdaily.com)
  • And when you look at what the cells have become, they become neurons with long axons [conducting fibers], as we'd expect. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The researchers did not transplant enough neurons to replace the dopamine-making cells in the brain, and the animal's behavior did not improve. (scitechdaily.com)
  • We found that differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) to DA neuron progenitors followed by transplantation into the rat brain may enable differentiation into DA neurons. (suny.edu)
  • Leaders of the University of Wisconsin-Madison lab that first transformed human stem cells into brain cells have started a company that produces and sells specialized neurons to drug researchers. (wisc.edu)
  • BrainXell develops neurons from stem cells in its Madison lab, then freezes them for shipment. (wisc.edu)
  • Once thawed in the customer's lab, the cells undergo a final step of specialization and become neurons like those found in the spinal cord or brain. (wisc.edu)
  • Zhang started making headlines in 2001 when he became the first scientist to turn human embryonic stem cells into neurons. (wisc.edu)
  • Both soluble and membranous forms promote neurite outgrowth of cerebellar and hippocampal neurons and suppress neuronal cell death. (uniprot.org)
  • Highly efficient and large-scale generation of functional dopamine neurons from human embryonic stem cells," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 105, no. 9, pp. 3392-3397, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Protein-based human iPS cells efficiently generate functional dopamine neurons and can treat a rat model of Parkinson disease," Journal of Clinical Investigation , vol. 121, no. 6, pp. 2326-2335, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Among these tools are nanoparticle-based probes and sensors that detect biochemical and physiological properties of neurons and glia, and generate signals proportionate to physical, chemical, and/or electrical changes in these cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • fates
  • (A,B) Wild-type and DISC1-disrupted iPSCs were differentiated to day 40 neural fates and RNA was harvested for qRT-PCR of DISC1 exon 2 (A) or exons 12/13 (B) . Expression is normalized to GAPDH and wt/wt levels. (nih.gov)
  • Protocols
  • This laboratory manual provides step-by-step protocols for isolating specific cell populations from rodent tissues and culturing them under conditions that closely resemble those in vivo. (cshlpress.com)
  • induces
  • Existing evidence indicates that 21-days exposure of rats to restraint stress induces dendritic atrophy in pyramidal cells of the hippocampus. (hindawi.com)
  • Infection
  • To date, little is known about the factors required for ZIKV infection of human neural cells. (pnas.org)
  • Although most clinically manifested virus infections tend to become generalized, and virus infections of the CNS therefore may represent the result of a systemic spread of the infection, some viruses demonstrate a greater affinity for neural cells than others and exhibit neurotropic properties. (springer.com)
  • stem cell
  • Dr. Jeffrey Kordower of the Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, said: "Taking these four papers together we can see that primate studies are helping to elucidate the likelihood of favorable outcomes following stem cell transplantation with respect to route of administration, possible modes of action and the ability to track the effects. (medindia.net)
  • Led by HHMI associate Nurit Ballas, a postdoctoral fellow in Mandel's lab, the study may advance stem cell research aimed at understanding repairing spinal cord injuries or replacing malfunctioning brain cells in neurodegenerative diseases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Another positive sign was the absence of any signs of cancer, says Zhang - a worrisome potential outcome of stem cell transplants. (scitechdaily.com)
  • BrainXell has licensed some of Zhang's patents, related to controlling stem cell development to produce different nerve cells, from the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation. (wisc.edu)
  • The extremely delicate development procedure uses various combinations of proteins, other chemicals and coatings that cause a stem cell to mature from a featureless cell into a highly specialized nerve cell. (wisc.edu)
  • cryopreservation
  • Essential techniques for the isolation, expansion, and cryopreservation of neural tissue from mouse, rat, and human sources are covered, as well as methods to assess aspects of cell function (calcium imaging) and cell death. (springer.com)
  • neuronal
  • Background: Neuronal cells respond to changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) by affecting both the abundance and architecture of specific mRNAs. (harvard.edu)
  • But it also allows the full elaboration of the neuronal phenotype from the precursor cell. (bio-medicine.org)
  • It may also provide insights into other diseases, such as small cell lung cancer, which mistakenly make neuronal proteins, or neurological syndromes, where neuronal proteins produced by cancers may trigger the immune cells to attack the nervous system. (bio-medicine.org)
  • transplants
  • Four primate studies have shown the possibility that neural cell transplants may be a potential therapy to treat neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease. (medindia.net)
  • And since the skin cells were not "foreign" tissue, there were no signs of immune rejection - potentially a major problem with cell transplants. (scitechdaily.com)
  • physiological
  • They can detect and measure enzymatic activities of proteases (metalloproteinases, caspases), ions, metabolites, and other biomolecules under physiological or pathological conditions in neural cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression
  • Although CD56 is often considered a marker of neural lineage commitment due to its discovery site, CD56 expression is also found in, among others, the hematopoietic system. (wikidoc.org)
  • Here, the expression of CD56 is most stringently associated with, but certainly not limited to, natural killer cells . (wikidoc.org)
  • These gene expression changes are rescued by antagonizing Wnt signaling in a critical developmental window, supporting the hypothesis that DISC1-dependent suppression of basal Wnt signaling influences the distribution of cell types generated during cortical development. (nih.gov)
  • To screen for cell-surface proteins showing enhanced expression under metabolic stress, we performed a signal sequence trap in combination with a functional cloning method. (ahajournals.org)
  • We screened for cell-surface proteins showing enhanced expression using oligomycin, a mitochondorial inhibitor in H9C2 rat cardiac myoblasts. (ahajournals.org)
  • migration
  • May play a role in regulating cell migration in nerve regeneration and cortical development. (uniprot.org)
  • Potentiates integrin-dependent cell migration towards extracellular matrix proteins. (uniprot.org)
  • Recent investigations disclosed that chemokines participated in the regulation of migration and maturation of neural cell grafts. (mdpi.com)
  • survival
  • To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of silicon dioxide nanoparticles on two human brain tumor cell lines (SK-N-SH, a neuroblastoma line and U87, an astrocytoma line) employing light microscopy, lactate dehydrogenase release into the culture medium (an indicator of cell damage and necrosis) and MTT assay (an indicator of cell survival). (nsti.org)
  • Our results indicate exposure to SiO2 nanoparticles led to cytotoxic damage (as indicated by LDH release) and decreases in cell survival (as determined by the MTT assay) in SK-N-SH and U87 cells in a dose-related manner, their effect being more pronounced in SK-N-SH cells. (nsti.org)
  • proteins
  • These clusters are remarkably stable, do not form at cell-substrate contacts, and appear not to be enriched in a number of other cytoskeletal, membrane, or extracellular proteins. (rupress.org)
  • gene
  • This study shows that there is more than one way to keep a REST-regulated gene repressed," said Michael G. Rosenfeld, an HHMI investigator at University of California, San Diego, who co-authored an accompanying commentary in Cell with Victoria Lunyak, a research associate in his lab. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The PATCHED ( PTC ) gene encodes a Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor and a tumor suppressor protein that is defective in basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). (sciencemag.org)
  • Transplantation
  • The researchers say that the protein may have beneficial effects on Parkinson's disease, for their research has so far shown some restorative influences after cell transplantation. (medindia.net)
  • An article describing the four studies has been published in the journal Cell Transplantation. (medindia.net)
  • Much attention has been focused on neural cell transplantation because of its promising clinical applications. (mdpi.com)
  • In this review, we summarize the involvement of inflammatory chemokines including stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF1) in neural regeneration after ES cell derived neural stem/progenitor cell transplantation in mouse stroke models. (mdpi.com)
  • influences
  • A neural cell with high sensitivity and conductivity has become a potential candidate for a cell chip to investigate toxicity of environmental influences. (mdpi.com)
  • integrin
  • Recently, establishment of integrin receptor specific ligand molecules arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) or its several modifications RGD-Multi Armed Peptide terminated with cysteine (RGD-MAP-C), C(RGD) 4 ensure farm attachment of neural cell on the electrode surfaces either in their two dimensional (dot) or three dimensional (rod or pillar) like nano-scale arrangement. (mdpi.com)
  • cellular
  • An initial observation prompted us to hypothesize that SiO2 nanoparticles can traverse the plasma membranes of cells through the endocytosis mechanism and thereby exert their cellular and cytotoxic effects on cells. (nsti.org)
  • immune
  • The immune system keeps T cells under control by regulating precisely when they can respond to a pathogen. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Once inside the CNS, there seems to be no CNS intrinsic immune system activated but a recruitment of macrophages and an invasion of immune-competent and phagocytic cells. (springer.com)
  • Detection
  • 2009) Detection of five different cells' sensitivities to enterovirus 71 using plaque forming assay World Journal of Gastroenterology, in Chinese, 17(6), 573-577. (scirp.org)
  • mitochondria
  • Moreover, the mitochondria membrane potential decreased, DNA fragmentation increased, leading to an increase in the apoptotic cell percentage. (medsci.org)
  • In conclusion, microwave radiation induced neural cell apoptosis via the classical mitochondria-dependent caspase-3 pathway. (medsci.org)
  • recommended that
  • This review recommended that a neural cell chip established on a nanostructured ligand modified conductive surface can be a potential tool for the toxicity assessments of newly developed nanomaterials prior to their use on biology or biomedical technologies. (mdpi.com)
  • Zhang
  • The experiment was designed as a proof of principle, says Zhang, who leads a group pioneering the use of iPS cells at the Waisman Center on the UW-Madison campus. (scitechdaily.com)