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  • dissemination
  • 23 ) as follows: M0 (no tumor dissemination beyond the local site), M1 (positive CSF cytology), M2 (intracranial dissemination), M3 (intraspinal dissemination), and M4 (systemic dissemination). (ispn.guide)
  • cytogenetic
  • Cytogenetic studies of rhabdoid tumors provided the first evidence that there was a common genetic basis for CNS, renal, and extrarenal rhabdoid tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis, cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings, and measures of mitotic activity are increasingly used in tumor diagnosis and classification. (cancer.gov)
  • Cytogenetic and other molecular studies have determined these tumors to have closer relationship to MRT. (upmc.edu)
  • 7 after studying two MRT cell lines (one of renal and the other of extrarenal origin) by immunocytochemical, ultrastructural and cytogenetic techniques, concluded that in both cases the cells have neuroectodermal as well as mesenchymal differentiating potential. (upmc.edu)
  • medulloblastomas
  • It has become increasingly clear, especially for medulloblastomas, that outcome is also related to the molecular characteristics of the tumor, but this has not been definitively shown for other embryonal tumors. (cancer.gov)
  • Primary
  • In practice, a tumor that is initially thought to be a primary sarcoma of the lung can prove, on further inquiry into patient history, to be a late metastasis from a primary soft tissue tumor or, on further sampling, to be a sarcomatoid carcinoma. (redorbit.com)
  • Pulmonary artery sarcomas will not be specifically discussed, but a study of these similarly uncommon tumors has recently been published.1 Despite, these diagnostic refinements, the relative rarity of primary pulmonary sarcomas makes it difficult to assemble statistically meaningful case studies and to fully understand the natural history and biology of these tumors. (redorbit.com)
  • neoplasm
  • Postoperative MR images of the head and spine for 17 patients were reviewed for the presence of locally recurrent or residual tumor and disseminated neoplasm. (ajnr.org)
  • Méningiome 0 questions A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. (lookformedical.com)
  • type of tumor
  • Gliomas are not a specific type of tumor. (cancer.org)
  • Unlike teratomas, the other type of tumor composed of cells of mixed embryologic origin in which the cell of origin is a germ cell, the cell of origin in ATRT is unknown. (upmc.edu)
  • vascular
  • Hemangioblastomas are rare vascular tumors most often found in the posterior fossa and cervical spinal cord and commonly associated with von Hippel-Lindau Disease. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. (lookformedical.com)
  • It is now possible to assemble a substantial panel of immunohistochemical markers that, in the appropriate histologic context, will reliably identify tumors of vascular, muscular, or neural origin. (redorbit.com)
  • malignancies
  • Cysts and other tumour-like lesions often develop in the CNS and local extensions from regional tumours or secondary deposits from distant malignancies are not infrequent complications. (springer.com)
  • Central Nervou
  • However, a convention, which has been accepted by the WHO, also separates these tumors on the basis of presumed location of origin within the central nervous system (CNS). (cancer.gov)
  • Tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a strikingly wide range of derivation, reflecting the histological complexity of the organ in which they arise. (springer.com)
  • distinct
  • The putative mechanism of tumorigenesis is inactivation of a still to be defined tumor supressor gene (TSG) distinct from the NF-2 gene, located in the distal long arm of chromosome 22. (upmc.edu)
  • Embryologically, tumors of the sympathetic nervous system differentiate along two distinct pathways, either the pheochromocytoma line or the sympathoblastoma line. (medscape.com)
  • suppressor
  • AT/RT has been linked to somatic and germline mutations of SMARCB1 and, less commonly, SMARCA4 , both of which are tumor suppressor genes. (cancer.gov)
  • Although germ-line mutations in INI1 were not observed, the homozygous loss or inactivation of the INI1 gene is consistent with its function as a tumor suppressor gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 , 3 - 6 AT/RTs can now be distinguished from PNET and other tumors by using specific immunohistochemical markers and by detection of deletions and/or mutations involving the hSNF5/INI1 tumor-suppressor gene in chromosome band 22q11.2. (ajnr.org)
  • characteristics
  • Biological/molecular tumor cell characteristics. (cancer.gov)
  • The preoperative cranial MR images of 13 patients with AT/RTs were retrospectively reviewed for evaluation of lesion location, size, MR signal intensity and enhancement characteristics, and the presence of disseminated intracranial tumor. (ajnr.org)
  • Glioma
  • Histopathological examination showed a biphasic tumor composed of bland neurocytic cells, arranged in the form of neurocytic rosettes along with glial areas resembling low-grade glioma. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • ependymal
  • These tumors start in the ependymal cells that line the ventricles or central canal of the spinal cord. (cancer.org)
  • Other histologic and immunohistochemical features, such as the degree of apparent cellular transformation along identifiable cell lineages (ependymal, glial, etc.), can be used to separate these tumors to some degree. (cancer.gov)
  • mutations
  • Up to 35% of patients may present with germline mutations and be prone to synchronous, multifocal tumors. (cancer.gov)
  • Fifteen tumors had homozygous deletions of one or more exons of the INI1 gene, and the other 14 tumors demonstrated mutations. (aacrjournals.org)