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  • open
  • INTRODUCTION: Throughout the mid 1990's and early 2000's numerous university programs compared perioperative complications in laparoscopic donor to the gold standard open technique in order to validate the emerging standard of care for nephrectomies. (sages.org)
  • treat
  • Simple nephrectomy is also indicated to treat renovascular hypertension due to noncorrectable renal artery disease or severe unilateral parenchymal damage caused by nephrosclerosis, pyelonephritis, reflux dysplasia, or congenital dysplasia of the kidney. (medscape.com)
  • In certain circumstances, radical nephrectomy is also indicated to treat locally advanced RCC and metastatic RCC. (medscape.com)