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  • CTCs
  • Objective: To test the sensitivity of a proprietary novel filtration device designed to capture and concentrate circulating tumor cells (CTCs). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) per milliliter of whole blood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Blood samples will be collected from study subjects and analyzed for the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) within 96 hours of blood collection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Xenografts generated from CTCs and parental cells were compared.Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) expression was also higher in CTCs.Xenografts generated from CTCs were larger and heavier, and metastasised faster than MDA-MB-231 xenografts. (nih.gov)
  • The CTCs and parental MDA-MB-231 cells were incubated at 21 and 0.2% (hypoxia) oxygen, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Xenografts generated from CTCs and parental cells were compared. (nih.gov)
  • Parental MDA-MB-231 cells induced ATF3 in hypoxia, whereas CTCs expressed it constitutively. (nih.gov)
  • Hypoxia induced ATF4 and the HIF1alpha target gene apelin in CTCs, but not in parental cells. (nih.gov)
  • Hypoxia induced lower levels of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), GLUT1 and BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19-KD protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3) proteins in CTCs than in parental cells, supporting an altered hypoxia response. (nih.gov)
  • In chronic hypoxia, CTCs demonstrated greater colony formation than parental cells. (nih.gov)
  • Ai) Freshly captured CTCs are cells with attached magnetic beads as indicated by white arrows. (nih.gov)
  • B-F) Induction of HIF1α in hypoxic MDA-MB-231 cells and CTCs. (nih.gov)
  • B) Expression of the anoxia factor ATF3 in CTCs and MDA-MB-231 cells. (nih.gov)
  • C) Induction of the anoxia-induced factor ATF4 in CTCs compared with MDA-MB-231 cells. (nih.gov)
  • D) Expression of ATF4 and its target gene ASNS in CTCs, compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cells. (nih.gov)
  • E and F) Differences between CTCs and parental MDA-MB-231 cells with respect to induction of HIF1α target genes. (nih.gov)
  • Hypoxic induction of (E) GLUT1 and (F) CAIX, BNIP3 in CTCs, compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Lesions
  • Hyperplasia of the breast - "Hyperplastic" lesions of the breast include usual ductal hyperplasia, a focal expansion of the number of cells in a terminal breast duct, and atypical ductal hyperplasia, in which a more abnormal pattern of growth is seen, and which is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bence Jones proteins are particularly diagnostic of multiple myeloma in the context of target organ manifestations such as renal failure, lytic (or "punched out") bone lesions, anemia, or large numbers of plasma cells in the bone marrow of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proliferation
  • Hyperplasia (from ancient Greek ὑπέρ huper, "over" + πλάσις plasis, "formation"), or hypergenesis, is an increase in the amount of organic tissue that results from cell proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Malignant mast cells overexpress the anti-apoptosis gene, bcl-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • On a cellular basis, LAM cells carry bi-allelic inactivation of the TSC2 genes, consistent with the "two-hit" tumor suppressor gene model. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase 1 (B3GAT1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the B3GAT1 gene, whose enzymatic activity creates the CD57 epitope on other cell surface proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glandular
  • An example of a normal hyperplastic response would be the growth and multiplication of milk-secreting glandular cells in the breast as a response to pregnancy, thus preparing for future breast feeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • The human genome may encode over 1000 miRNAs, which are abundant in many mammalian cell types and appear to target about 60% of the genes of humans and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • involvement
  • It is divided in two main categories: T-cell LGL leukemia (T-LGLL) and natural-killer (NK)-cell LGL leukemia (NK-LGL)L. As the name suggests, T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia is characterized by involvement of cytotoxic-T cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • markers
  • The neoplastic cells of this disease display a mature T-cell immunophenotype, with the majority of cases showing a CD4-/CD8+ T-cell subset immunophenotype versus other permutations of those markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute
  • Neutrophils are the most common cell type seen in the early stages of acute inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • bladder
  • It may play a role in normal bladder epithelial physiology, possibly in regulating membrane permeability of superficial umbrella cells or in stabilizing the apical membrane through AUM/cytoskeletal interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluid
  • Flow cytometry detects antibodies linked to tumour cell surface antigens in fluid samples or cell suspensions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peritoneal cavity contains a small amount of fluid, which circulates under the influence of negative pressure generated by the diaphragm, gravity and bowel peristalsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • A variable percentage of cells within the LAM lesion contain mutational inactivation of the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC1 or TSC2) tumor suppressor genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myeloid
  • Two pairs of broadest categories classify them either by structure (granulocytes or agranulocytes) or by cell division lineage (myeloid cells or lymphoid cells). (wikipedia.org)