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  • tribes
  • The name of many tribes meant "the people" in the tribe's language. (britannica.com)
  • The Blackfoot Nation is actually a confederation of several distinct tribes, including the South Piegan (or Pikuni), the Blood (or Kainai), the North Piegan, and the North Blackfoot (or Siksika). (encyclopedia.com)
  • After researching Native American lore in depth, I have come to the conclusion that although there are features that could tie these artifacts to the lore of various tribes, the strongest indicators suggest a direct relationship to the lore of the Cherokees. (romanofficer.com)
  • Throughout the Southeast, European settlers in the eighteenth century caused massive dislocation among Indian tribes as the newcomers expanded their settlements and agricultural lands. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Seminole as a tribal unit emerged in the mid-eighteenth century from among refugees of a number of southeastern tribes dislocated as a result of European advancement into traditional Indian territory in Georgia and Alabama . (encyclopedia.com)
  • These tribes coalesced, becoming known as the Three Affiliated Tribes (or MHA Nation), and a reservation was created for them at Fort Berthold , North Dakota. (britannica.com)
  • At the time of European contact, some of the indigenous people were traditionally mostly semi- nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting , fishing , gathering , and migrant agriculture . (wikipedia.org)
  • In Brazil, particularly, most native tribes who were living in the land by 1500 are thought to be descended from the first Siberian wave of migrants, who are believed to have crossed the Bering Land Bridge at the end of the last Ice Age, between 13,000 and 17,000 years before the present. (wikipedia.org)
  • The many years of struggle between Native American tribes and the U.S. government resulted in the near extinction of many Native American tribes. (faqs.org)
  • The Native American population, including American Indians and Alaska Natives, once totaled nearly 24 million, with over 500 tribes. (faqs.org)
  • According to Michael G. Johnson in The Native Tribes of North America , the Nez Perc é population was estimated at about 6,000 in 1800. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This lesson helps dispel prevailing stereotypes and generalizing cultural representations of American Indians by providing culturally-specific information about the contemporary as well as historical cultures of distinct tribes and communities within the United States. (neh.gov)
  • While it is most accurate to use the tribal name when speaking of a specific tribe, there is no definitive preference for the use of 'Native American' or 'American Indian' among tribes or in the general literature. (neh.gov)
  • Tribe
  • The free, public opening celebration on Feb. 12 from 6 to 9 p.m. will begin with a ceremony led by representatives of American Indian communities with ancestral ties to Ohio, including Chief Glenna J. Wallace of the Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, visual artist Richard Zane Smith of the Wyandotte Nation of Oklahoma and tribal historic preservation officer Paul Barton of the Seneca-Cayuga Nation of Oklahoma. (toledomuseum.org)
  • Living in societies organized in a variety of ways (the terms tribe or nation are not always accurate), American Indians usually made decisions about war and peace at the local level, though they sometimes fought as part of complex formal alliances such as the Iroquois Confederation, or in temporary confederacies inspired by charismatic leaders such as Tecumseh. (crystalinks.com)
  • As of 2014, Cheyenne Indians reside in two areas, including the Northern Cheyenne Tribe and Indian Reservation in Montana and the Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho tribe in Oklahoma. (reference.com)
  • The Arikara tribe of Native Americans traditionally lived along the Missouri River in what is now in North Dakota. (britannica.com)
  • Many of the almost 4,000 descendants of the tribe live on the Nez Perc é reservation near Lapwai, Idaho, except for the Joseph band, which resides on the Colville reservation of north-central Washington. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The rich grasslands of the Nez Perc é territory enabled the tribe to raise some of the largest horse herds of any Native American group. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In Native communities, HIV "is not being talked about until it is too late," said Rick Haverkate, a conference organizer, member of the Sault Ste. Marie tribe and Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan's director of health services. (thebody.com)
  • nation's
  • Brought completely up to date to reflect recent scholarship and the new wave of immigration to the United States in the last decade, the second edition of this immensely popular book highlights a much-neglected dimension of the American past by giving a unique focus to the history of the nation's minority groups. (worldcat.org)
  • history
  • This history of injustice largely explains why Indians are among the most impoverished groups in the United States and other countries. (britannica.com)
  • In addition to his numerous works on indigenous history, he has written extensively on U.S. foreign policy and the repression of political dissent, including the FBI 's COINTELPRO operations against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement. (tulane.edu)
  • Colin ReadTOPIC TEN: SOCIAL HISTORY OF BRITISH NORTH AMERICA'The Riddle of Peggy Mountain: Regulation of Irish Women''''s Sexuality on the Southern Avalon, 1750-1860,' Willeen Keough'Dry Patriotism: The Chiniquy Crusade,' Canadian Historical Review, Jan Noel'The Feminization of Teaching in British North America and Canada 1845-1875,' Histoire sociale/ Social History, Alison PrenticeTOPIC ELEVEN: LABOUR IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA'Unfair Masters and Rascally Servants? (indigo.ca)
  • It creates a category which has traditionally been used to relegate the long story of American Indian warfare to a minor footnote in U.S. history. (crystalinks.com)
  • In addition, Native American leaders indicate that a large percentage of Native American families have instances of family violence in their history including child abuse or neglect, sexual abuse, and/or battering. (overcomersministry.org)
  • Through art, it takes the visitor through 500 years of American history. (toledoblade.com)
  • Crystal Bridges is a destination for those who love unique architecture, America history, and art. (toledoblade.com)
  • It also explores the far-reaching implications of recent immigration laws, presenting the controversy over multiculturalism in terms of understanding American history. (worldcat.org)
  • They have expanded the discussion of the meaning of such terms as "white" and "people of color" and have updated all content--especially information on gender, Indian-white contact, and cultural history--by incorporating new findings from recent scholarship. (worldcat.org)
  • Natives and Strangers, 4/e, is ideal for undergraduate courses covering immigration, American social history, and American ethnic groups. (worldcat.org)
  • Remarkable in the breadth of its coverage, this is the first survey that integrates the experiences of racial, religious, and ethnic minorities to present an overall sense of American history while illuminating major trends in the growth of the United States. (worldcat.org)
  • Until the last few decades, the only strong effort to exhibit this art in galleries or museums was made by those few institutions specializing in ethnological, exotic, or art history subjects, together with the rare specialized museum devoted only to Indian materials or to those of the American West. (britannica.com)
  • One of the first to combine ecology and history , the author shows how the shift from Indian to European dominance effected land development in colonial New England. (charlestonlibrarysociety.org)
  • AN INCONVENIENT TRUTH: A Curious Account of Native People in North America by Thomas King (Anchor Canada 2013) Combining scholarship and activism, irony and humor, a never-too-heavy but still poignant history of the Indian in North America. (charlestonlibrarysociety.org)
  • The displays are a sometimes confusing mix for those of us who like our history unconfused -- there are Indian ceremonial garments fashioned from British buttons and cloth from Europe. (roadsideamerica.com)
  • Teaching children about the First Americans in an accurate historical context while emphasizing their continuing presence and influence within the United States is important for developing a national and individual respect for the diverse American Indian peoples, and is necessary to understanding the history of this country. (neh.gov)
  • Carolina
  • Analysis of the site's Woodland period (1000 B.C. - 1000 A.D.) artifacts shows evidence of an extensive trade network that extended to as far away as Georgia, North Carolina, and Ohio. (wikibooks.org)
  • 20th century
  • While anti-Asian racism was embedded in U.S. politics and culture in the early 20th century, Indians were also racialized for their anticolonialism, with U.S. officials, casting them as a "Hindu" menace, pushing for Western imperial expansion abroad. (wikipedia.org)
  • Americas
  • The first people to live in the Americas were the Indians. (britannica.com)
  • Indian words dot the maps of the United States, Canada, and the rest of the Americas. (britannica.com)
  • The arrival of Europeans in the Americas proved devastating to the native peoples. (britannica.com)
  • Over the first century and a half after Columbus's voyages, the native population of Americas plummeted by an estimated 80% (from around 50 million in 1650, mostly by outbreaks of Old World diseases but also by several massacres and forced labor. (overcomersministry.org)
  • In the Americas , historically, the term "Indian" has been most commonly used to refer to the indigenous people of the continents after European colonization in the 15th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • The data also shows that there have been genetic exchanges between Asia, the Arctic, and Greenland since the initial peopling of the Americas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The question of how, when and why humans ( Paleo-Indians ) first entered the Americas is of intense interest to archaeologists and anthropologists , and has been a subject of heated debate for centuries. (thefullwiki.org)
  • While there is general agreement that America was first settled from Asia by people who migrated across Beringia , the pattern of migration, its timing, and the place of origin in Asia of the peoples who migrated to the Americas remains unclear. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The archeological evidence suggest that Paleo-Indians' first "widespread" habitation of the Americas occurred during the end of the last glacial period , or more specifically what is known as the late glacial maximum , around 16,500-13,000 years ago. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Anthropological and genetic evidence indicates that most Amerindian people descended from migrant people from North Asia ( Siberia ) who entered the Americas across the Bering Strait or along the western coast of North America in at least three separate waves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Creek Indians
  • For example, although the Battle of Horseshoe Bend is often described as an "American victory" over the Creek Indians, the victors were a combined force of Cherokees, Creeks, and Tennessee militia led by Andrew Jackson. (crystalinks.com)
  • The Creek Indians applied the term to Indians from a number of broken tribal units in the Southeast that coalesced in what is now the state of Florida after they had abandoned their traditional territories. (encyclopedia.com)
  • populations
  • That Country left the Indians in peace, though death from contagious disease decimated the populations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There is a relative lack of differentiation between Mesoamerican and Andean populations, a scenario that implies that coastal routes were easier for migrating peoples (more genetic contributors) to traverse in comparison with inland routes. (wikipedia.org)
  • diversity
  • The diversity of social, economic, religious life, languages and arts of representative Indian groups from the various geographic regions will be covered. (niu.edu)
  • The term 'Native American' includes over 500 different groups and reflects great diversity of geographic location, language, socioeconomic conditions, school experience, and retention of traditional spiritual and cultural practices. (neh.gov)
  • Yupik
  • Peoples of the American Arctic prefer the term Native Alaskan, Yupik, or Inuit. (britannica.com)
  • The second and third migratory waves from Siberia, which are thought to have generated the Athabaskan , Aleut , Inuit , and Yupik people , apparently did not reach farther than the southern United States and Canada , respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plains Indian
  • Boiled buffalo tongue was a delicacy and was served as the food of communion at the Sun Dance, a Lakota and Plains Indian courtship dance that also celebrated the renewal of spiritual life. (faqs.org)
  • colonial
  • Under colonial authorities and later under national and state governments, native peoples were subject to discriminatory political and legal policies well into the 20th, and even the 21st, century. (britannica.com)
  • United States
  • Citing figures from a 1894 estimate by the United States Census Bureau, one scholar has noted that the more than 40 Indian wars from 1775 to 1890 reportedly claimed the lives of some 45,000 Indians and 19,000 whites. (crystalinks.com)
  • Since the 1980s, Indian Americans have been categorized as "Asian Indian" (within the broader subgroup of Asian American ) by the United States Census Bureau . (wikipedia.org)
  • Christopher Columbus
  • Unlike Christopher Columbus , who thought he had reached the East Indies , the Portuguese , most notably Vasco da Gama , had already reached India via the Indian Ocean route when they reached Brazil . (wikipedia.org)
  • Colonists
  • CHANGES IN THE LAND: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England by William Cronon ( Hill and Wang, 2003) A field guide to Barkskins by a MacArthur Fellow and semi-finalist for the Pulitzer Prize. (charlestonlibrarysociety.org)
  • The American colonists resisted, creating a series of crises that culminated in the armed rebellion of 1775. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As early as 1762, Whitehall planned to station fifteen regular army battalions permanently in America, with the colonists paying the bill. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Colonists who believed that Anglo‐American cooperation and shared sacrifice had achieved the victory were outraged, and the patriotic fervor of the war evaporated in the face of postwar reforms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • colonization
  • Before American colonization of the Plains, the Arikara lived along the Missouri River between the Cannonball and Cheyenne rivers in what are now North Dakota and South Dakota . (britannica.com)
  • Some theorists seek to develop a colonization model that integrates both North and South American archaeological records. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Cheyenne
  • In the Indian Wars, the Cheyenne were the victims of the Sand Creek Massacre in which the Colorado Militia killed 600 Cheyenne. (crystalinks.com)
  • The Sand Creek Massacre refers to an infamous incident in the Indian Wars of the United States that occurred on November 29, 1864 when Colorado Militia troops in the Colorado Territory massacred an undefended village of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped on the territory's eastern plains. (crystalinks.com)
  • Where did the Cheyenne Indians live? (reference.com)
  • What did the Cheyenne Indians wear? (reference.com)
  • The Cheyenne people mainly wore clothing and shoes made of elk, deer and buffalo skin decorated with porcupine quills and shells. (reference.com)
  • Caribbean
  • Spain shipped Cuban sugar and molasses to New England which distilled it into rum and shipped it along with furs and lumber to Europe on New England ships where it was exchanged for manufactured goods and African slaves, the latter being sold in Caribbean islands and the American South. (news-star.com)
  • The formation of plantations in the American South in the 18th century was similar to that which occurred a century earlier when plantations were formed in Caribbean islands. (news-star.com)
  • Indian warfare in North America was similar to that in the Caribbean a century earlier. (news-star.com)
  • time
  • In fact, it was probably inhabited for a long time before people moved into North America itself. (britannica.com)
  • The name Blackfoot reportedly derived from the black-dyed moccasins worn by some tribal members at the time of early contact with non-Indians. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Sioux had the misfortune of becoming intimately acquainted with the westward thrust of American expansion at a time when American attitudes toward Indians had grown cynical. (encyclopedia.com)
  • No longer needed as allies, and looked upon as merely being in the way, Indians entered a perilous time of being regarded as dependent domestic minorities. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some of the different Indian, or Native American, peoples that inhabited North America at one time or another include the Apache, Blackfoot, Cherokee, Chey. (reference.com)
  • In time, this group saw to the establishment of a School of Indian Art in Santa Fe. (britannica.com)
  • Perhaps the greatest positive force to appear in some time are the Indian tribal councils and economic development boards, many of which support the arts in their own areas, not only to augment income but also out of an awareness of the cultural value of those arts. (britannica.com)
  • The specimens date from 1200 cal BP to historic times, confirming the deep time continuity of intoxicant use and indigenous smoking practices in northwestern North America. (pnas.org)
  • This and the discovery of oil in the Williston Basin forced another removal, this time to new homes on the arid North Dakota uplands, where farming was difficult. (britannica.com)
  • The third Anglo‐French War (1739-48) brought America back in to British strategic calculations for the first time. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By the time children in the U.S. begin school, most have heard and developed impressions of "Indians" from books, movies, or in the context of the Thanksgiving holiday. (neh.gov)
  • They have been known from time immemorial, as the Serpent People, or People of the Serpent. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • Blackfoot
  • The Northern Blackfoot live farthest north, the Blood and North Piegan in the middle just north of the Canadian border, and the South Piegan furthest south along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in northern Montana. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In 1809, fur trapper and explorer Alexander Henry estimated the North Blackfoot population at 5,200. (encyclopedia.com)
  • What are some facts about the Blackfoot Indians? (reference.com)
  • tribal
  • Many Siouan-language peoples are no longer identified as Sioux , but have evolved their own separate tribal identities centuries ago, long before contact with non-Indians. (encyclopedia.com)
  • India
  • This article is about Americans with ancestry from India . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, the word índios ("Indians") was by then established to designate the people of the New World and continues to be used today in the Portuguese language to designate these people, while a person from India is called indiano in order to distinguish the two. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many people in India believe that there is an entrance in the entrance in the Well of Sheshna , in Benares leading to the mysterious Patala kingdom. (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • Origin
  • In 2004, he surprised his fellow Pakistanis in America and many people in his native country when, as president of the Association of Pakistani Physicians of North America, he invited the presidents of the American Association of Physicians of Indian Origin and the Bangladesh Medical Association of North America to share the stage with him at the Pakistani group's annual banquet. (toledoblade.com)
  • governmental
  • however, Sam Houston, during his terms as president of the republic of Texas and as governor of the state of Texas, unsuccessfully attempted to accommodate the needs of Indians into Texas governmental policy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sparked by John Collier, then commissioner of Indian affairs, this body is one of the few governmental organizations set up specifically to promote, encourage, and revive native arts and crafts. (britannica.com)
  • multicultural
  • The experiences of Native Americans in the Roman Catholic Church will be the subject of a book to be published by the National Catholic Educational Association in the next few weeks as part of a multicultural series. (edweek.org)
  • Teaching
  • The ERIC Digest volume, "Countering Prejudice against American Indians and Alaska Natives through Antibias Curriculum and Instruction," written by Deirdre A. Almeida and available online through a link from the EDSITEment-reviewed resource Native Web , contains information on teaching about Native Americans in non-generalizing and non-stereotyping ways. (neh.gov)
  • practices
  • Chemical analysis of residues contained in the matrix of stone smoking pipes reveal a substantial direct biomolecular record of ancient tobacco ( Nicotiana ) smoking practices in the North American interior northwest (Plateau), in an area where tobacco was often portrayed as a Euro-American-introduced postcontact trade commodity. (pnas.org)
  • What objects and practices do we associate with Indian culture? (neh.gov)
  • survivors
  • American students have been told for more than a century that there were no survivors, despite the fact that approximately 2,500 Indian participants survived the battle. (encyclopedia.com)
  • traditions
  • The influence of traditions on motivated collective actions: A focus on Native land reclamation. (springer.com)
  • It is my impression that the ancient people the Cherokees (who are theorized to have possibly once been an Iroquois speaking people that moved south) descended from knew of certain traditions that the Romans were keenly interested in, no doubt something to do with prophesy or a prophesy. (romanofficer.com)
  • For more information about "Embracing Our Traditions, Values and Teachings: Native Peoples of North America HIV/AIDS Conference," visit www.embracingourtraditions.org . (thebody.com)
  • plantations
  • Escaped slaves from plantations joined the Indians in Florida, and U.S. troops raided the Spanish territory pursuing the runaways who had settled in Seminole villages. (encyclopedia.com)
  • indicate
  • Such art combined images of with extinct North American mammals as well as a distinct Solutrean spearhead should indicate that it likely originated from a period of 22,000 to 17,000 years ago. (romanofficer.com)
  • population
  • In the mid-eighteenth century, fur trappers exploring westward, with the hope of establishing trading relationships with the Native population, were the first non-Indians to visit this region. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the upper mid-west or within a 700-mile radius of Minneapolis including Ontario and Manitoba Canada the approximate total native population is 632,595. (overcomersministry.org)
  • This is a significant overrepresentation in the overall population i.e., 33/1000 child abuse cases are Native American compared with white youth abuse cases making up 4.7/1000. (overcomersministry.org)
  • In 2000, 8.8 of Native Americans had a bachelor's degree or higher, compared with 24.7 percent for the general Minnesota population. (overcomersministry.org)
  • southeastern
  • The federal government under Jackson, who became president in 1829, devised a plan of removal of all Southeastern Indians to western land acquired under the Louisiana Purchase . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Nez Perc é (nez-PURSE or nay-per-SAY) tribe's traditional territory includes the interior Pacific Northwest areas of north-central Idaho , northeastern Oregon, and southeastern Washington. (encyclopedia.com)