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  • high aerosols
  • Past approaches have left short-wave polarized light -- which is crucial for calculating how high aerosols reside in the atmosphere and how much radiation the particles are absorbing -- largely out of the equation. (nasa.gov)
  • In addition, post-mission analyses of relative amounts of ozone O 3 and aerosols as compared to discriminator profiles of each, permits an airmass characterization scheme including stratospherically influenced air, plumes with either high O 3 or high aerosols or both, continental outflows, convective transport, and clean marine air. (spie.org)
  • observations
  • Models can be highly valuable in trying to discern the aerosol loading in observations, provided they accurately represent the temporal heterogeneity that is responsible for the heterogeneity in loadings. (nasa.gov)
  • The scientists used data from instruments on NASA's Terra satellite and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite, a joint effort between NASA and the French space agency, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. (nasa.gov)
  • In such episodes, the large amount of aerosol import could elevate PM concentrations to above the air quality standard, as recorded by previous observations. (nasa.gov)
  • The research team will use observations from satellite instruments, including a space-borne lidar, to investigate whether dust aerosols are cooling or warming our planet. (umbc.edu)
  • 2013). In particular, the Dark Target (DT) algorithms applied to MODIS observations provide aerosol retrievals over both ocean and dark vegetated land surfaces (Kaufman et al. (atmos-meas-tech.net)
  • There is still considerable ambiguity about the dominant types of aerosol in satellite observations and the amount of observed aerosol that can be attributed to human activities," he said. (nasa.gov)
  • To retrieve this fundamental information from the elastic backscatter lidar data acquired during the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission, a selective, iterated boundary location (SIBYL) algorithm has been developed and deployed. (nasa.gov)
  • Observations and modeling of aerosol and cloud properties. (atmos-meas-tech.net)
  • dust
  • This situation, together with the highly nonuniform distribution of sources of anthropogenic and dust aerosols, leads to a highly heterogeneous distribution of aerosol loadings (in great contrast to the rather smooth distribution of the long-lived greenhouse gases). (nasa.gov)
  • According to a new analysis of NASA satellite data, 64 million tons of dust, pollution and other particles that have potential climate and human health effects survive a trans-ocean journey to arrive over North America each year. (nasa.gov)
  • New research shows that dust accounts for most of the 64 million tons of foreign aerosol imports that arrive in the air over North America each year. (nasa.gov)
  • Global aerosol transport models revealed Asia was a primary source of the dust reaching North America. (nasa.gov)
  • Do the imported dust and pollution aerosols impact air quality and human health? (nasa.gov)
  • Prof. Zhibo Zhang, leader of the ARCOS team , wins a major research grant from NASA to study dust aerosols from space. (umbc.edu)
  • The team employed the help of a computer model using known air chemistry and wind patterns to trace a region's aerosols - everything from fossil fuel and biofuel combustion, biomass burning, and volcanic sources, desert dust and sea salt - back to their sources. (nasa.gov)
  • About 50 percent of surface fine particulate matter in the western U.S. stems from a natural source: dust transported from Asia or from local deserts and organic aerosols from vegetation. (nasa.gov)
  • global aerosol
  • The likely cause of the change of validation over time is sensor degradation, but changes in the distribution of AERONET stations and differences in the global aerosol system itself could be contributing to the temporal variability of validation. (atmos-meas-tech.net)
  • Researchers using an innovative global aerosol tracking model have for the first time produced a global estimate of sources and movements of aerosols near the ground where they can affect human health and run afoul of environmental regulations. (nasa.gov)
  • carbon dioxide
  • But it's dangerous to develop climate policies without reference to reliable, up-to-date environmental data on global temperature , carbon dioxide levels and aerosols, just as it would be foolhardy to develop national economic policy without reliable economic data on national debt, government revenue and expenditure, and unemployment figures. (theconversation.com)
  • coarse
  • Larger differences (typically outside of the RMS uncertainty) were often observed for parameters related to the supermicron aerosols (total scattering and absorption coefficients, coarse mode Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe and OPC size distributions/integral properties, and soluble chemical species usually associated with the largest particles, e.g. (unh.edu)
  • Some of the observed differences reflect different inlets (e.g., low-turbulence inlet enhancement of coarse mode aerosol), differences in sampling lines, and instrument configuration and design. (unh.edu)
  • 2017
  • The Gulf of Alaska (below)/ April 20, 2017 https://go.nasa.gov/2pXIZbh Aerosol Experiments Using Lithium and Psychoactive Drugs Over Oregon by Ann Fillmore PhD / February 2016 [excerpts] …full deployment has been achieved. (metaphysicalmusing.com)
  • distributions
  • This system has been flown on the NASA DC-8 during the Global Tropospheric Experiments (GTE) to provide real-time remote sensing of tropopause heights, stratospheric intrusions, cloud tops/bases, boundary layer heights, and, in general, the large-scale variations of O 3 and aerosol distributions across the troposphere. (spie.org)
  • Best overall agreement (generally within RMS instrumental uncertainty) was for physical properties of the submircron aerosol, including condensation nuclei concentrations, scattering coefficients, and differential mobility analyzer and optical particle counter (OPC) accumulation mode size distributions. (unh.edu)
  • For the current sensors like MODIS, VIIRS and now OLCI atmospheric correction procedures include assumptions about the characteristics of atmospheric aerosols based on relative humidity and particle size distributions. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Example images of clear, hazy, and cloudy scenes over the Pacific Ocean and California land targets obtained during flights between 2010 and 2012 are shown, and quantitative interpretations of the data using vector radiative transfer theory and scene models are provided to highlight the instrument's capabilities for determining aerosol and cloud microphysical properties and cloud 3-D spatial distributions. (atmos-meas-tech.net)
  • variability
  • The short residence times of tropospheric aerosols are comparable to the time scale of variability in synoptic scale winds and precipitation that control the distribution of aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • This situation may be turned to advantage, because the inherent spatial and temporal variability of aerosol loading allows the possibility of experiments that can discern and quantify the aerosol influences, by comparisons between high and low loading situations. (nasa.gov)
  • The validation results for the 3 km product did not have a relationship to aerosol loading (i.e., true AOD), but did exhibit dependence on quality flags, region, viewing geometry, and aerosol spatial variability. (atmos-meas-tech.net)
  • North America
  • A new NASA study estimates that most ground-level particulate pollution in the United States stems from regional sources in North America and only a small amount is brought to the country from other parts of the world. (nasa.gov)
  • Chin and colleagues estimate that between 65-70 percent of surface particulate matter in the eastern U.S. originates from regional pollution aerosols from fuel combustion in North America. (nasa.gov)
  • GISS
  • In recent years, however, researchers from NASA Goddard's Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York City have developed new remote-sensing techniques to more accurately measure aerosols over land. (nasa.gov)
  • According to Brian Cairns, an aerosol climatologist at GISS who has pioneered the technique, polarized images have a dull tone that make the subtle hues of aerosols easier to detect amidst the shades of gray land. (nasa.gov)
  • earth's
  • The problem is especially acute over land, where the glare from sunlight reflecting off Earth's surface overwhelms the passive imaging instruments scientists typically use to detect aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • A direct injection of aerosols into this layer will form a sheet of coolant that would block the solar radiations from entering the Earth's surface. (theenvironmentalblog.org)
  • Sensor
  • NASA has announced a US $100,000 grand prize for designing a low-cost and lightweight aerosol sensor that can monitor air quality on Earth as well as in space environments. (hindustantimes.com)
  • The impact of the solar angles, scattering angles determined by the Sun-sensor geometry and wind speed on the differences in aerosols parameters are evaluated and correlated with the accuracies in the retrieval of the remote sensing reflectance spectra from ocean waters. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • black carbon
  • Though there are several varieties of aerosols, previous research has shown that two types -- sulfates and black carbon -- play an especially critical role in regulating climate change. (nasa.gov)
  • They then ran through various scenarios of how temperatures would change as the levels of ozone and aerosols -- including sulfates and black carbon -- varied in different regions of the world. (nasa.gov)
  • Some types of small aerosols -- such as black carbon from motor vehicle exhaust and biomass burning -- promote atmospheric warming by absorbing sunlight. (nasa.gov)
  • atmospheric correction
  • The Research Topic embraces studies of atmospheric correction over ocean including addressing issues of aerosols, cloud masking, foam, bubbles, ice etc., as well as ocean bio-optics and biogeochemical studies taking advantage of the PACE and polarization spectral capabilities. (frontiersin.org)
  • The choice of aerosol model in the atmospheric correction is critical in the process of the derivation of the water leaving radiances from the Ocean Color (OC) imagery for ocean monitoring. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • pollution
  • We believe that controlling near-surface domestic pollution is a more effective way of mitigating aerosols' health effects. (nasa.gov)
  • emissions
  • The two highly industrialized regions have produced most of the world's aerosol emissions over the last century, and some of those aerosols drift northward and collect in the Arctic. (nasa.gov)
  • The Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) is an ongoing study by NASA which measures the emissions from research and commercial aircrafts. (theenvironmentalblog.org)
  • radiation
  • Emitted by natural and human sources, aerosols can directly influence climate by reflecting or absorbing the sun's radiation. (nasa.gov)
  • We suggest that other GCMs use these same data sets (aerosols, or heating rates and fluxes) as forcing, to compare the radiation schemes and climate response. (nasa.gov)
  • TRACE-P focused on trace gases and aerosol during March/April and was based primarily in Hong Kong and Yokota Air Force Base, Japan, and involved two aircraft: the NASA DC-8 and the NASA P3-B. ACE-Asia focused on aerosol and radiation during April/May and was based in Iwakuni Marine Corps Air Station, Japan, and involved the NSF C-130. (unh.edu)
  • researchers
  • The researchers found that the mid and high latitudes are especially responsive to changes in the level of aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • The polarized image has less glare and a dull tone that makes it easier for researchers to detect small aerosols. (nasa.gov)
  • trace
  • These results provide a basis for integrating aerosol data from these aircraft platforms for both the TRACE-P and ACE-Asia experiments. (unh.edu)
  • composition
  • Cairns' technique measures polarization more accurately, integrates more longwave and shortwave polarization information into the mathematical models, and is the first to provide accurate estimates of aerosol size and composition over land. (nasa.gov)
  • Depending on their composition and other properties, aerosols can scatter or absorb the sun's heat, and can thus both warm and cool the planet depending on the circumstances. (nasa.gov)
  • The CU aircraft version of the Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) detects non-refractory submicron aerosol composition by impaction on a vaporizer at 600°C, followed by electron ionization and time-of-flight mass spectral analysis. (nasa.gov)
  • Size-resolved composition can be quantified by measuring the arrival times of the aerosol at the vaporizer. (nasa.gov)
  • estimates
  • Thus far, most if not all estimates of anthropogenic aerosol forcing have been made using general circulation model (GCM) climatologies. (nasa.gov)
  • The map at right is a computer simulation of the same day showing that the model accurately estimates the transport of aerosols between continents. (nasa.gov)
  • 2001
  • Chin and colleagues set out to investigate how much and what type of aerosols made the intercontinental journey in 2001. (nasa.gov)
  • The left image shows aerosol levels on April 13, 2001 as seen by a NASA satellite. (nasa.gov)
  • uncertainty
  • Since sub-grid scale variation of humidity is a major uncertainty in GCMs, and as aerosol hygroscopicity and the accompanying growth are nonlinear functions of humidity (especially at relative humidities greater than 85%), this becomes an important element to consider in assessing the accuracy of the aerosol radiative forcing. (nasa.gov)
  • chemistry
  • PEM Tropics-A (September-October 1994) involved two NASA aircraft in a study of the chemistry of the troposphere over the central and southern Pacific with a focus on the tropics in the southern hemisphere. (spie.org)
  • aircraft
  • NASA has recently adopted a public strategy of abusing its position of national and public service by attempting to indoctrinate the citizens, including children, that the aerosol operations are a "normal" and expected consequence of daily life and aircraft. (chemtrailsplanet.net)
  • During the missions the DIAL instrument is routinely used to identify altitudes of O 3 and/or aerosol layers so that the aircraft can then be directed to fly subsequent legs at specified heights to allow for in situ sampling of key species. (spie.org)
  • The instrument has been flying aboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft since October 2010. (atmos-meas-tech.net)
  • study
  • Study and research have been in place over the past 20 years, where weather modification experiments were initiated using silver iodide crystals.There is no major step taken to implement it in the live environment yet but UK scientist Professor Tim Lenton says that aerosol injection is ongoing worldover. (theenvironmentalblog.org)
  • solar
  • Thus, OCI will measure the broadest solar spectrum of any NASA instrument, to date. (frontiersin.org)
  • To ensure the health of humans living on Earth as well as those traveling in spacecraft to explore the solar system, aerosol sensors are needed to monitor air quality and alert engineers when action is necessary. (hindustantimes.com)
  • troposphere
  • This can be illustrated by looking at the effects of Pinatubo aerosols on visible, near-IR, and thermal IR in both the troposphere and stratosphere. (nasa.gov)
  • Physics
  • We need to do a much better job of characterizing aerosols in order to improve predictions of, for example, how much temperature will rise over the next 50 years," said research scientist Jonathan Jiang, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. who was also a co-author of the Physics Today story. (nasa.gov)
  • experiments
  • While there has been much research on global warming , and enough evidence to support that it is a threat that we cannot afford to ignore, there aren't many conclusive experiments to prove the effects of aerosol geoengineering. (theenvironmentalblog.org)
  • processes
  • This is nearly as much as the estimated 69 million tons of aerosols produced domestically from natural processes, transportation and industrial sources. (nasa.gov)
  • robust
  • The challenge is to promote development of robust, durable, inexpensive, efficient, lightweight, and easy-to-use aerosol sensors for space and Earth environments. (hindustantimes.com)