Loading...
  • complexes
  • Given that the neurotoxins are unable to cleave SNAP-25 when this protein is forming part of mature trimeric complexes, as demonstrated in in vitro assays ( 15 ), it has been proposed that the initial release, which is relatively insensitive to BoNT A ( 16 , 17 ), could be driven by complexes formed by the remaining uncleaved proteins. (pnas.org)
  • One hypothesis for SM protein function is that they facilitate a switch of the Sx from a closed to an open conformation, thus lifting the inhibitory action of the Habc domain and freeing the SNARE motif to participate in SNARE complexes. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • BACKGROUND: The VAT protein of the archaebacterium Thermoplasmaacidophilum, like all other members of the Cdc48/p97 family of AAAATPases, has two ATPase domains and a 185-residue amino-terminalsubstrate-recognition domain, VAT-N. VAT shows activity in protein foldingand unfolding and thus shares the common function of these ATPases indisassembly and/or degradation of protein complexes. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • These tail-anchored membrane proteins operate via a fundamental mechanism: their sequential assembly into tight membrane-bridging complexes pulls the two membranes together. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Each isoform is, like all other subunits, present in coatomer as one copy, resulting in four possible different heptameric protein complexes. (db-engine.de)
  • SNAREs
  • Cleavage of SNAREs by Clostridial neurotoxins has been established as an essential tool to investigate the role of these proteins in neurotransmission ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • This review focuses on the discovery of SNAREs and then on four of the nine v-SNAREs: the clostridial neurotoxin sensitive VAMPs 1, 2, and 3 and on Tetanus neurotoxin-Insensitive Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein, TI-VAMP/VAMP7. (springer.com)
  • SNAP
  • BKV agnoprotein and α-SNAP were found to partially co-localize in cells, and a complex consisting of agnoprotein and α-SNAP could be co-immunoprecipitated from cells ectopically expressing the proteins as well as from BKV-transfected cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Amperometry in chromaffin cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) have been used to test the involvement of single amino acids in exocytotic function, overcoming some of the limitations of studies based on Botulinum neurotoxin cleavage, as this occurs at defined sites of the protein. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, our strategy was based in overexpressing native as well as altered forms of SNAP-25 coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in bovine chromaffin cells and studying the effect produced by these constructs in the secretory properties of the cells. (pnas.org)
  • Golgi
  • Reconstitution of the transport of protein between successive compartments of the Golgi measured by the coupled incorporation of N-acetylglucosamine. (springer.com)
  • Proteomics characterization of abundant Golgi membrane proteins. (springer.com)
  • R. Schwaninger, H. Plutner, H. Davidson, S. Pind, and W. Balch , Transport of Protein between Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Compartments in Semi-intact Cells. (elsevier.com)
  • L. Hicke, T. Yoshihisa, and R. Schekman , Purification of Yeast Sec23 Protein by Complementation of Mutant Cell Lysates Deficient in ER to Golgi Transport. (elsevier.com)
  • T. Serafini, G. Stenbeck, A. Brecht, F. Lottspeich, L. Orci, J. E. Rothman, and F. Wieland (1991) A Coat Subunit of Golgi-Derived non-Clathrin Coated Vesicles with Homology to the Clathrin Coated Vesicle Coat Protein b-Adaptin. (db-engine.de)
  • K. Sohn, L. Orci, M. Ravazzola, M. Amherdt, M. Bremser, F. Lottspeich, K. Fiedler, J. B. Helms, and F. Wieland (1996) A major transmembrane protein of Golgi-derived COPI-coated vesicles involved in coatomer binding. (db-engine.de)
  • A role for the vesicle tethering protein, p115, in the post-mitotic stacking of reassembling Golgi cisternae in a cell-free system. (nih.gov)
  • Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65 (GRASP65), an NEM-sensitive membrane-bound component, is required for the stacking process.Temporal analysis suggests that p115 plays a transient role in stacking that may be upstream of GRASP65-mediated stacking.These results implicate p115 and its receptors in the initial alignment and docking of single cisternae that may be an important prerequisite for stack formation. (nih.gov)
  • Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65 (GRASP65), an NEM-sensitive membrane-bound component, is required for the stacking process. (nih.gov)
  • NSF-mediated cisternal regrowth requires a vesicle tethering protein, p115, which we now show operates through its two Golgi receptors, GM130 and giantin. (nih.gov)
  • binds
  • Phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains (PAG), a novel ubiquitously expressed transmembrane adaptor protein, binds the protein tyrosine kinase csk and is involved in regulation of T cell activation. (springer.com)
  • It is a substrate recognition domain which binds polypeptides, prevents protein aggregation, and catalyses refolding of permissive substrates. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • membranes
  • In our view, the formation of a COPI transport vesicle involves the following minimal set of components: donor membranes with transmembrane proteins acting as coat and/or cargo receptors (e.g. members of the p24 family), cytosolic Arf1, cytosolic coatomer and auxiliary enzymes that serve as nucleotide exchange factors for activation on the membrane of Arf1 (GBF1) and GTPase activating proteins for the activation of GTP hydrolysis by Arf1 (Arf GAPs). (db-engine.de)
  • lipids
  • They range from 30 nm to several micrometers in diameter, and ferry biological cargos such as proteins, lipids, RNAs and DNAs for local and distant intercellular communications. (springer.com)
  • Munc18
  • Although regulation of SNARE complex assembly is not well understood, it is clear that two conserved protein families, the Sx (syntaxin) and the SM (Sec1p/Munc18) proteins, are central to this process. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • secretory
  • In order to monitor secretory events simultaneously over most of the surface of clusters of single MIN6 β-cells, we have expressed recombinant neuropeptide Y-Venus (an enhanced and vesicle-targeted form of yellow fluorescent protein) as an insulin surrogate. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • cells
  • developing cells deploy distinct protein assemblies in and around the plasma membrane appropriate for the task at hand. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, the ubiquitination of p53 was reduced by overexpression of GS28 in cells, confirming that GS28 enhances the stability of the p53 protein. (biochemj.org)
  • S.A. Adam, R. Sterne-Marr, and L. Gerace , Analysis of Nuclear Protein Import Using Digitonin-Permeabilized Cells. (elsevier.com)
  • encodes
  • The BK virus genome encodes three regulatory proteins, large and small tumor-antigen and the agnoprotein, as well as the capsid proteins VP1 to VP3. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • au18 and au13 contain mutations in nsfb , which encodes a protein that is required for the maturation of melanosomes in zebrafish RPE. (arvojournals.org)
  • membrane bound
  • In collaboration with John Briggs' and Irmi Sinning's groups we are interested in the structure of the coat protein coatomer as a monomeric, soluble complex, as well as in its membrane bound form as a coating network. (db-engine.de)
  • mitosis
  • multi-protein structures that determine spindle polarity in mitosis through their function as primary microtubule-organizing centers of the cell. (biologists.org)
  • exocytotic
  • Nipkow disc confocal imaging may thus provide a useful tool to determine whether event types occur at different sites at the cell surface and to explore the role of endocytic proteins including dynamin-1 and -2 in terminating individual exocytotic events. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • specificity
  • Understanding the mechanism of action and substrate specificity of BoNTs is a prerequisite to develop antitoxin and novel BoNT-derived protein therapy. (biochemj.org)
  • substrate
  • To date, there is a lack of detailed information with regard to how BoNTs recognize and hydrolyse the substrate VAMP-2 (vesicle-associated membrane protein 2), even though it is known to be cleaved by four of the seven BoNT serotypes, B, D, F, G and TeNT (tetanus neurotoxin). (biochemj.org)
  • amino acid
  • Domain sketch of NSF protein and the amino acid conservation of the N-D1 linker.The diagram shows the structural domains of NSF: the N-terminal domain, D1 and D2 AAA+ modules. (nih.gov)