• NTHI strain 2019 with mutations in the genes encoding CMP- N -acetylneuraminic acid synthetase ( siaB ), one of the three NTHI sialyltransferases ( siaA ), and the undecaprenyl-phosphate α- N -acetylglucosaminyltransferase homolog ( wecA ) produced significantly smaller amounts of biofilm. (asm.org)
  • Multiple N-acetyl neuraminic acid synthetase (neuB) genes in Campylobacter jejuni: identification and characterization of the gene involved in sialylation of lipo-oligosaccharide. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • For industrial use, this enzyme is useful for enzymatic synthesis of sialic acid. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • A second chapter is devoted to the finer aspects of the modern, up-to-date chemical synthesis of the all-important glycosides of N -acetylneuraminic acid, a class of sialic acid derivatives with a myriad of functions. (elsevier.com)
  • Acyl group modification is performed using lipases or phospholipase A2-mediated transesterification or ester synthesis to introduce arbitrary fatty acid to phospholipids. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The present inventors have further found that even a tetraantennary N-type sugar chain having four α2,6-linked sialic acid molecules, which has previously been difficult to synthesize, can be prepared at high yields by one-pot synthesis comprising the elongation reaction of a biantennary sugar chain used as a starting material without performing purification after each enzymatic reaction. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • CMP substitutions preferentially inhibit polysialic acid synthesis. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Sialic acid (Sia), a family of 9-carbon sugar acids, occurs in large amounts in human milk oligosaccharides and is an essential component of brain gangliosides and sialylated glycoproteins, particularly as precursors for the synthesis of the polysialic acid (polySia) glycan that post-translationally modify the cell membrane-associated neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM). (nih.gov)
  • The effect of induction and repression on the rate of synthesis of messenger ribonucleic acid. (harvard.edu)
  • synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid from N-acetylglucosamine and pyruvate by constructing and co-expressing a polycistronic plasmid encoding an N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase gene from Synechocystis sp. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • Inactivation of the CMP- N -acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene has provided an example of human-specific genomic mutation that results in a widespread biochemical difference between human and nonhuman primates. (pnas.org)
  • Unlike these gene changes, inactivation of the CMP- N -acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene is unique in that it is a single gene and inactivated in the hominid lineage only ( 8 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • These nine-carbon sugars function as ligands in recognition systems mediated by sialic acid-binding lectins, such as CD22, myelin-associated glycoprotein, sialoadhesin, and influenza A virus hemagglutinin (reviewed in ref. 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • A nucleoside monophosphate sugar which donates N-Acetylneuraminic Acid to the terminal sugar of a ganglioside or Glycoprotein . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Normal human serum SA is largely bound to glycoproteins or glycolipids (Total sialic acid, TSA, 1.5-2.5 mmol/L), with small amounts of free SA (1-3 umol/L). Negatively charged SA units stabilize glycoprotein conformation in cell surface receptors to increase cell rigidity. (hmdb.ca)
  • Sialic acid and cholesterol supplementation increase cortical ganglioside and glycoprotein sialic acid and cholesterol in animal models, respectively. (ku.edu)
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of bovine casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) and dietary cholesterol on cortical ganglioside- and glycoprotein-bound sialic acid accumulation in young rats. (ku.edu)
  • In pups sacrificed between P38 and P47, cholesterol intake increased glycoprotein sialic acid (p = 0.030). (ku.edu)
  • Particularly, the production of glycoprotein drugs or the like inevitably requires producing in quantity sugar chains having homogeneous structures by controlling the linking pattern (α2,6-linkage or α2,3-linkage) of sialic acid. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Increased levels of sialic acid associated with a sialidase deficiency in I-cell disease (mucolipidosis II) fibroblasts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Although oligosaccharide side chains of these mutants were found to contain higher levels of sialic acids than those of wild-type Abs, the analysis of enzymatically desialylated D265A variants ruled out the possibility that very poor Fc-associated effector functions of the D265A mutants were due to an increased level of the mutant Fc sialylation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Sialic acid is the moiety most actively recycled for metabolic purposes in the salvage pathways in glycosphingolipid metabolism. (hmdb.ca)
  • All of the genomes investigated have been significantly affected by prokaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfers, dramatically affecting the enzymes of core pathways, particularly amino acid and sugar metabolism, but also providing new genes of potential adaptive significance in the life of parasites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This enzyme is useful for enzymatic determination of N-acetylneuraminic acid and sialic acid when coupled with the related enzymes in clinical analysis. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Neuraminidase enzymes are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that cleave the glycosidic linkages of neuraminic acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Wild-type sialyltransferases and their mutants have been applied with or without other sialoside biosynthetic enzymes for producing complex sialic acid-containing oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. (nih.gov)
  • More than 55 genes, encoding receptors, enzymes, and transporters, are known to be involved in sialic acid biology. (springer.com)
  • Construction of four polycistronic plasmids in which the positions of AGE gene differ with respect to Nal gene, plasmid pET-28a-Nal-anAGE with anAGE gene located next to Nal gene produces the highest amount of N-acetylneuraminic acid, overview. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • Such variations include the length, the saturation, and the hydroxylation of both the fatty acid chain and the long chain base. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast to glycerolipids, the lipid anchor in sphingolipids builds on the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine, which is coupled via its amino group to a fatty acid to form ceramide (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The most typical STGs are MLM-type STGs, having medium chain fatty acids (FAs) at the 1- and 3-positions and a long chain fatty acid at the 2- position. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 3 In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of children already using stimulant therapy, the addition of the essential fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, found in fish oil) for 4 months failed to further improve symptoms. (portsmouthhospital.com)
  • Determination of Sialic Acids in Liver and Milk Samples of Wild-type and CMAH Knock-out Mice. (jove.com)
  • In pups sacrificed on P32, CGMP increased cortical ganglioside sialic acid in a doseresponse manner (p for trend = 0.007). (ku.edu)
  • In the same experiment, dietary cholesterol independently increased ganglioside sialic acid (p = 0.02). (ku.edu)
  • Sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) are members of the Ig superfamily that bind sialic acids in different linkages in a wide variety of glycoconjugates. (nih.gov)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the oxo-acid-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • ABSTRAC: Fibroblasts from the original sialuria patientare shown to contain high levels of free sialic acid, i.e., anaverage of 87 versus a normal average of 2 nmol/mg ofprotein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Angata T, Hayakawa T, Yamanaka M, Varki A, Nakamura M (2006) Discovery of Siglec-14, a novel sialic acid receptor undergoing concerted evolution with Siglec-5 in primates. (springer.com)
  • Sialic acids are structurally unique nine-carbon keto sugars occupying the interface between the host and commensal or pathogenic microorganisms. (hmdb.ca)
  • Avril T, Wagner ER, Willison HJ, Crocker PR (2006) Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 7 mediates selective recognition of sialylated glycans expressed on Campylobacter jejuni lipooligosaccharides. (springer.com)
  • NTHi utilizes sialic acid from the host as a carbon source and as a terminal sugar on the outer membrane glyco-lipid lipooligosaccharide (LOS). (mendeley.com)
  • 9. A method in accordance with claim 1, wherein said sialic acid is 5-N-acetylneuraminic acid, said acceptor is lactose, said nucleoside triphosphate is ATP, said phosphate donor is phosphoenolpyruvate, said kinase is pyruvate kinase, said nucleoside monophosphate kinase is myokinase, said divalent metal cation is Mn ++ and said sialyltransferase is α(2,3)sialyltransferase. (google.com.au)
  • The present inventors have newly found the activity of sialyltransferase of degrading sialic acid on a reaction product in the presence of CMP and also found that formed CMP can be degraded enzymatically to thereby efficiently produce a sialic acid-containing sugar chain. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Joziasse et al, "Branch Specificity of Bovine Colostrum CMP-Sialic Acid: Galβ1→4GlcNAc-R α2→6-Sialyltransferase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Sialic acids are components of cell-surface glycans and play important roles in cell-cell communication and host-pathogen interaction. (springer.com)
  • A restoration of the reassortant productivity happened due to the appearance of amino acid substitutions in HA and, sometimes, NA. (springer.com)
  • Replacement of aspartic acid by alanine at position 265 (D265A) in mouse IgG1 results in a complete loss of interaction between this isotype and low-affinity IgG Fc receptors (FcγRIIB and FcγRIII). (jimmunol.org)
  • Studies suggest that N-Acetylneuraminic acid is useful biologically in neurotransmission, leukocyte extravasation, viral or bacterial infections and carbohydrate-protein recognition. (medchemexpress.com)