• Especially in urban areas in Asia, almost 90% of young people develop myopia before the age of 20 4 . (zeiss.com)
  • In the past, vision scientists and eye care professionals thought that the tendency to develop myopia was "hardwired" into genes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nearly two-thirds of Taiwanese children develop myopia before they finish elementary school, and more than a quarter of them are either overweight or obese, the Health Promotion Administration said, as it recommended more outdoor exercises to help children stay fit and maintain good eyesight. (taipeitimes.com)
  • More recently, an Australian study found that children who spend more time outside don't develop myopia as often as children who spend more time indoors. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Children of clear-sighted parents can develop myopia from poor vision habits. (iblindness.org)
  • Relative peripheral refraction (RPR) was calculated and eyes were divided into three study groups: non-myopic eyes, myopic eyes, and eyes that develop myopia. (dovepress.com)
  • Hyperopic relative peripheral shift change in eyes that develop myopia has been found with differences in RPR between myopic (hyperopic RPR) and hyperopic or emmetropic eyes (with myopic RPR). (dovepress.com)
  • A fundus photograph of the retina of a person with degenerative myopia (right) is compared with that of a normal person's retina (left). (nih.gov)
  • CHICAGO --- Northwestern Medicine scientists have discovered a cell in the retina that may cause myopia when it dysfunctions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Patients with myopia have a higher risk of developing a detached retina . (aao.org)
  • In a worst-case scenario, early myopia can lead to the emergence of progressive myopia, a severe form of short-sightedness: after the onset, a person's vision may quickly deteriorate at a rate of one dioptre per year and turn into high myopia, which increases the risk of other eye problems, such as damage to the retina or even blindness 6 . (zeiss.com)
  • Myopia occurs when the eye grows longer than normal, causing the eye to focus in front of the retina instead of on it, which creates a blurred image. (wisegeek.com)
  • Constant focusing on near objects also moves the peripheral focal plane behind the retina, triggering a long term correction that induces myopia. (fark.com)
  • This DR-protective effect may result from conditions often found in myopia, including atrophy of the retina, choroid, or vitreous," Dr. Lim said. (scienceblog.com)
  • When a person has myopia, the eye is too long and the image is focussed in front of the retina, so it appears blurry. (cyh.com)
  • The gene is mainly expressed in the eye's ciliary body and neural retina, which may offer key insight into future medical treatment and prevention of high myopia, the cause of which remains unclear, Jin said. (eastday.com)
  • Through our research we speculated that the ciliary body and neural retina are probably the root place where high myopia happens, which may help future treatment to be more accurately directed,' he said. (eastday.com)
  • Functional analysis of APLP2 using an APLP2 knockout mouse model confirmed functional significance of APLP2 in refractive development and implicated a potential role of synaptic transmission at the level of glycinergic amacrine cells of the retina for the development of myopia. (plos.org)
  • Eyeglasses or contact lenses may help to correct or improve myopia by adjusting the focusing power to the retina. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Prof Saw said bright outdoor light keeps myopia at bay by stimulating the release of dopamine in the retina, which prevents elongation of the eye. (theborneopost.com)
  • A mismatch of power and axial length produces either myopia, where the visual image forms in front of the retina, or hyperopia, where the visual image forms behind the retina. (molvis.org)
  • In myopia, images focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it, largely because the eye has grown too long after birth. (fathermag.com)
  • WEDNESDAY, Nov. 7, 2018 -- Early life factors associated with myopia include maternal education, fertility treatment, summer birth, and hours spent playing computer games, according to a study published online Nov. 6 in the British Journal of Ophthalmology . (drugs.com)
  • We presented the protocol for precise evaluations of the state of myopia, including refraction, corneal curvature and axial length using up-to-date devices. (nature.com)
  • Dr. Lim's study is the first to include axial length (AL, measured from the front to back of the eye) in an analysis of the myopia-DR relationship. (eurekalert.org)
  • Reduced risk of DR, especially severe DR, was found in patients whose myopia resulted from two anatomical characteristics: longer axial length and deeper anterior eye chamber (anterior chamber depth, ACD). (eurekalert.org)
  • Myopia is a condition that results in distant objects appearing blurry. (wisegeek.com)
  • A person with myopia sees near objects clearly but distant objects appear blurry. (allaboutvision.com)
  • It was further found that the risk of glaucoma was higher in those subjects with blurry vision, and highest in those subjects whose blurry vision was caused by myopia. (naturaleyecare.com)
  • We excluded trials where participants were older than 18 years at baseline or participants had less than -0.25 diopters (D) spherical equivalent myopia. (nih.gov)
  • This retrospective study comprised 14 eyes of eight patients who had RLE to treat myopia of −19.0±5.4 diopters (D). Phacoemulsification, posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and standard three-port vitrectomy were performed. (nature.com)
  • The predictability of LASIK falls abruptly when used to correct myopia higher than 12.0 diopters (D). Possible complications are undercorrection, regression, corneal ectasia, corneal flap displacement, intraepithelial cysts, and a deteriorated quality of vision. (nature.com)
  • The 2010 national survey on the prevalence of myopia among children found that 4.6 percent of kindergarteners aged four to five were nearsighted (equal to or greater than minus-0.5 diopters), with the prevalance rising to 7.1 percent among those aged five to six. (taipeitimes.com)
  • Because a majority of Taiwanese children start to have problems with their vision at a fairly young age, many of them are highly susceptible to developing high-degree myopia (greater than minus-6.00 diopters) at a later age. (taipeitimes.com)
  • Phakic myopia lens of -20.0 diopters, 7 years postoperatively, in a 30-year-old man. (medscape.com)
  • You may have heard of a process called orthokeratology to treat myopia. (aao.org)
  • Furthermore, mouse studies revealed that lack of Aplp2 has a dose-dependent suppressive effect on susceptibility to form-deprivation myopia, providing a potential gene-specific target for therapeutic intervention to treat myopia. (plos.org)
  • Importantly, the effect was much greater than the effect of age--the ciliary muscle ring for a 40-year-old person with myopia would be substantially larger than for a 60-year-old person with hyperopia. (medindia.net)
  • Alternative methods of treatment are under investigation, but presently there are no evidence-based, preferred practice recommendations for slowing the progression of school-age myopia. (mercy.net)
  • In addition to the genetic causes of myopia there are also environmental factors, the most significant of which are education-related behavior patterns. (uni-mainz.de)
  • While comprehensive research still has to be done, we do know several different potential causes of myopia. (zeiss.com)
  • The research on myopia has been growing exponentially since the first report of experimental myopia, which was achieved on monkeys by lid fusion 3 . (nature.com)
  • New research on myopia - how it develops, risk and protective factors, and potentially effective measures for prevention and treatment are reported across twenty articles in the November issue of Optometry and Vision Science , official journal of the American Academy of Optometry. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The special issue highlights important new research on myopia - how it develops, risk and protective factors, and potentially effective measures for prevention and treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Our aim is to develop mice as a model species for research on myopia. (nervenet.org)
  • Myopia and Refractive errors in Dogs" (pdf). (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual practitioners may find better control than the studies suggest, perhaps due to the particular design used or, perhaps in the case of ortho-K, due to the particular mix of refractive errors treated, with higher levels of myopia showing greater control than the averages in the clinical trials. (healio.com)
  • This case study presents the results and advantages of phacoemulsification, which Dr Dieter W Klass and his team applied after previous implantation of an iris-fixated phakic IOL (pIOL) (Artisan, Ophtec) for the correction of high myopia without explantation of the pIOL. (modernmedicine.com)
  • Hjortdal, "Femtosecond (FS) laser vision correction procedure for moderate to high myopia: a prospective study of ReLEx Ⓡ flex and comparison with a retrospective study of FS-laser in situ keratomileusis," Acta Ophthalmologica , vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 355-362, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • 3 Thus, the interest in removal of the clear crystalline lens is renewed and RLE may be considered for the correction of high myopia. (nature.com)
  • The World Health Organization has grouped myopia and uncorrected refractive error with cataract, macular degeneration, infectious disease, and vitamin A deficiency among the leading causes of blindness and vision impairment in the world. (bmj.com)
  • About nine out of 10 senior high school graduates are nearsighted, and more than one in four of them have developed high myopia, a condition closely associated with potential blindness, he said. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • The Neitzes are internationally recognized for developing a potential gene therapy cure for color blindness and are among the world's thought leaders on genetic and environmental factors that may be influencing a global epidemic of myopia. (rpbusa.org)
  • Myopia is associated with high insulin levels, so this makes sense. (scienceblogs.com)
  • High myopia will usually stabilize between the ages of 20-30 years old. (aao.org)
  • How common is retinal detachment for people with high myopia? (aao.org)
  • High myopia generally begins in early childhood, and continued growth of the eye often means that the corrective lens prescription required to allow proper focus may not stabilize until the early adult years. (aapos.org)
  • The prevalence of high myopia has been increasing over the last several decades, particularly in developed countries. (aapos.org)
  • Because more people, including children, are developing high myopia, various methods of attempting to slow its progression have been attempted. (aapos.org)
  • It is important for patients with high myopia to receive regular dilated eye exams, since this condition is associated with an increased lifetime risk of retinal holes or tears, which can lead to retinal detachment. (aapos.org)
  • Several techniques of refractive surgery are used to reduce high myopia. (nature.com)
  • Attempts to use these lenses for reduction of high myopia have been shown to give rise to complications such as corneal staining and lens decentration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The efficacy and safety of modified Snyder-Thompson posterior scleral reinforcement in extensive high myopia of Chinese children, Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, November, 2013. (naturaleyecare.com)
  • Whereas the evidence on this issue is controversial, a cross-sectional study in Beijing demonstrated that a higher prevalence of myopia in high school students was associated with shorter near work distance [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • How is high myopia diagnosed? (sharecare.com)
  • High myopia is often first diagnosed in childhood, when vision problems begin to develop. (sharecare.com)
  • A rating of -6.0D or more is symptomatic of high myopia. (sharecare.com)
  • And for most of the 12 families who have two children, the elder child did not suffer myopia while the younger one had high myopia,' Jin said. (eastday.com)
  • High myopia in early childhood is a recognised association of ocular and systemic disease. (nih.gov)
  • All children presenting to two ophthalmology units over 3 years who were found to have high myopia were recruited. (nih.gov)
  • Only 9 (8%) of the children had 'simple high myopia' with no associated ocular or systemic associations. (nih.gov)
  • In 54% there was an underlying systemic association with or without further ocular problems (e.g. developmental delay, prematurity, Marfan, Stickler, Noonan, Down syndrome) and in the remaining 38% there were further ocular problems associated with the high myopia (e.g. lens subluxation, coloboma, retinal dystrophy, anisometropic amblyopia). (nih.gov)
  • We suggest that all children under 10 years of age with high myopia are referred to a paediatric ophthalmology clinic for review and we propose a structured clinical evaluation in the hospital eye clinic. (nih.gov)
  • Modest assumptions about consumer privacy myopia suggest that even Americans who place a high value on information privacy will sell their privacy bit by bit for frequent flyer miles. (discourse.net)
  • Of those, 10% will have high myopia. (ski.org)
  • The immediate aim is to reduce the prevalence of high myopia. (ski.org)
  • Spending time outdoors also reduces children's risk of developing high myopia (500 degrees or more) in later years, she said. (theborneopost.com)
  • 12.6 per cent had high myopia. (theborneopost.com)
  • It also found that the best way to predict whether a child would develop high myopia is to look at when he or she first became short-sighted. (theborneopost.com)
  • The earlier a child develops myopia, the more likely he may develop high myopia in later life, because there is more time for the myopia to progress, until about 20 to 25 years of age when the condition stabilises. (theborneopost.com)
  • 4 An additional full report of reduced myopia following laser compared with cryotherapy was identified and the English abstract suggests a historically controlled comparison (Italian not yet translated), 6 while a final abstract reports less myopia following laser in 14 infants compared with 20 non-randomly assigned cryotherapy infants 7 . (bmj.com)
  • SLITRK6 mutations cause myopia and deafness in humans and mice. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people believe that environmental factors may also cause myopia -- like sitting too close to the television or computer monitor, or too much close reading. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This discovery could lead to a new therapeutic target to control myopia," said Greg Schwartz, lead investigator and assistant professor of ophthalmology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. (eurekalert.org)
  • We know from the Gutenberg Health Study conducted at Mainz that the number of years of education increases the risk of developing myopia,' said Professor Norbert Pfeiffer, Director of the Department of Ophthalmology at the Mainz University Medical Center. (uni-mainz.de)
  • About 30 per cent of our patients have a family history of myopia," says Dr Manish Sharma, senior consultant (paediatric ophthalmology) at Vasan Eye Care Hospital, New Delhi. (hindustantimes.com)
  • A review published in the journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology in 2012 indicated that each hour spent outside per week reduces a child's chances of developing myopia by two per cent. (hindustantimes.com)
  • It took me a while to realize how distorted a child's experience of the world is in China," says Ian Morgan, an Australian ophthalmology researcher who spends about five months of each year in Guangzhou studying myopia. (nih.gov)
  • Billson, 'Monocular axial myopia associated with neonatal eyelid closure in human infants', American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Deafness and myopia syndrome is a disorder that causes problems with both hearing and vision. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The prevalence of deafness and myopia syndrome is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Deafness and myopia syndrome is caused by mutations in the SLITRK6 gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • SLITRK6 gene mutations that cause deafness and myopia syndrome result in an abnormally short SLITRK6 protein that is not anchored properly to the cell membrane. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Published in the journal Nature Genetics , a new international study identifies 161 genetic factors for myopia-many of which are novel-that essentially quadruples the number of known genetic risk factors playing a role in all retinal cell types, most involved in processing light. (aoa.org)
  • Myopia is caused by genetics, as well as other environmental factors. (paragonvision.com)
  • Insufficient sunlight exposure could play a part in the complicated interplay of environmental and genetic factors that trigger myopia, evidence suggests, lending further credence to calls encouraging children's outdoor time. (aoa.org)
  • Researchers from the Gutenberg Health Study at Mainz University Medical Center believe their latest genetic research helps shed light on a possible answer using data from the international Consortium for Refractive Error and Myopia (CREAM) study. (aoa.org)
  • The team has uncovered nine new genetic risk factors which work together with education-related behavior as the most important environmental factor causing myopia to generate the disorder. (uni-mainz.de)
  • With the aim of identifying genetic mutations relating to myopia and acquiring better insight into the development of the condition, the international research group CREAM carried out a meta-analysis of data collected from around the world. (uni-mainz.de)
  • This represents significant initial headway towards understanding how genetic causes interact with the level of education as an environmental factor to produce the heterogeneity of myopia. (uni-mainz.de)
  • Given the rise in myopia prevalence, likely due to changing environmental pressures in childhood, further studies of this and other cohorts are warranted, in conjunction with genetic data, to continue efforts to produce predictive models that can ascertain who should be targeted for treatments to reduce the future burden of this condition," the authors write. (drugs.com)
  • Although the exact pathogenic mechanism of myopia is still unclear, most scholars believe that myopia is the result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors. (hindawi.com)
  • The majority of genetic variants underlying myopia seems to be of small effect and/or low frequency, which makes them difficult to identify using classical genetic approaches, such as GWAS, alone. (plos.org)
  • The article discusses research being done on genetic factors that influence the development of myopia. (ebscohost.com)
  • Myopia, also known as short-sightedness, is when your child sees nearby objects clearly but their vision is blurred in the distance. (zeiss.com)
  • Multiple logistic regression models were applied to assess possible factors associated with myopia. (hindawi.com)
  • The myopia epidemic! (scienceblogs.com)
  • On the other hand, a rapidly growing body of research on certain populations in East Asia is yielding strong evidence linking diminishing levels of exposure to outdoor light with a prevalence of myopia that is approaching epidemic proportions. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report a highly practical and reproducible lens-induced myopia model by specially designed frames and lenses for mice. (nature.com)
  • Progressive addition lenses (PALs), reported in four studies, and bifocal spectacles, reported in four studies, were found to yield a small slowing of myopia progression. (nih.gov)
  • All these lenses provide optimum vision and can also help with managing the progression of myopia as compared to standard single vision lenses. (zeiss.com)
  • After you stop using the lenses, your cornea goes back to its original shape and myopia returns. (aao.org)
  • Multifocal lenses were also associated with about 30 percent reduction in a key measure of eye growth: lengthening of the eye, which is responsible for the myopia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For many years, commercially-available ortho-k lenses aim to reduce low - moderate myopia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There is also a lot of enthusiasm about ortho-K for myopia control, for the obvious advantages of clear daytime vision without lenses and an average, demonstrated 40% to 50% control of myopia progression (Gifford et al. (healio.com)
  • evaluated corneal infiltrative events and showed that 8- to 12-year-olds, "the kids we would be putting in lenses for myopia control," Bullimore said, are the safest. (healio.com)
  • Prospective studies are looking at lenses for myopia control," he continued, "and authors forget to tell us about how safe the lenses are. (healio.com)
  • In people with myopia, the eyeball is too long or the cornea has too much curvature, so the light entering the eye is not focused correctly. (medicinenet.com)
  • Myopia may be caused by a person's eyeball stretching too long from front to back, or from the cornea being more curved than normal. (wisegeek.com)
  • There have been attempts to identify genes that may be important in myopia development. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluating more than 250,000 participants across North America, Europe and Asia, the study identified 161 genes related to myopia whereas it had only found nine the year before in a smaller meta-analysis. (aoa.org)
  • However, the myopia-causing genes that had been previously identified do not alone sufficiently explain the extent to which the condition is inherited. (uni-mainz.de)
  • This work identifies APLP2 as one of the "missing" myopia genes, demonstrating the importance of a low-frequency gene variant in the development of human myopia. (plos.org)
  • Gene variants identified by GWAS studies to date explain only a small fraction of myopia cases because myopia represents a complex disorder thought to be controlled by dozens or even hundreds of genes. (plos.org)
  • Here, we combined gene expression profiling in a monkey model of myopia, human GWAS, and a gene-targeted mouse model of myopia to identify one of the "missing" myopia genes, APLP2 . (plos.org)
  • We would like to know what genes and molecular mechanisms contribute to eye growth in general, and to the overgrowth of myopia in particular. (nervenet.org)